Bibliography

Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls

Introduction
New Additions
Primary References and Official Series
Facsimiles, Reproductions, and Reconstructions
Bibliography of Dead Sea Scroll Studies - Alphabetical by Author
Miscellaneous Reference Materials

Quick Index - Alphabetical by Author
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Introduction

This Bibliography is indebted to the numerous sources which I have consulted over the first three years of this project. Amongst these I must mention the following as especially noteworthy for the guidance and information they continue to provide:

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New Additions

Copies of the Abstracts from An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches held in Jerusalem July 20-25,1997 have recently been added to this bibliography. It should be remembered that these are not the presentations, but only brief descriptions of what the speakers intended to discuss (as of the time the abstracts had to be submitted). These are the best we can do until the official PROCEEDINGS of this International Congress appear in print. Please check the International Congress' official site periodically for further information about its aftermath and any publication announcements.

Anyone reading these abstracts has to be encouraged to see the beginnings of significant disputes on some really interesting issues. Intellectual disagreement, as long as it's civil, is good. It is our only defense against dogma. If it turns out that the long standing theory about an Essene Community at Qumran is correct, the disputes will only strengthen its arguments. If it is wrong, in any significant respect, disputation offers the only hope of finally getting it right. Sometimes the "most important scientist or thinker" is the one who backs the wrong theory for all the right reasons. The ensuing arguments often stimulate much good science and analysis from both supporters and critics and thereby extract the best ideas from everybody.

We don't yet have a fully rational theory about what was going in the Judaean desert 2,000 years ago, and without a few good fights, we never will. Argument is a sign of good health in any intellectual discipline. Don't trust anyone who tells you he knows it all. Condescension is not the sign of the careful scholar. Ego, yes! Knows the literature, yes! Thinks all the important questions have been asked and answered, NO! Fortunately, there appears to be some life left in the discipline that has grown up around Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Some interested parties have been waiting 50 years for the fighting to get underway. Golb did his bit. Eisenman did his bit. Golb and Eisenman clearly have significant disagreements with each other but they are in some sense on the same side; they're trying to figure it out. We need more questors and fewer preachers. Now it is time for a new generation to throw their ideas into the fray; I have no doubt that they have many worthwhile ideas to offer. Based on these abstracts, it looks like some of them do indeed have new insights worth considering. Some of it is still tentative, but I feel encouraged by the signs I see. Several camps are starting to stake out their intellectual positions. For myself, while I am inclined to mistrust the conventional wisdom in most situations, I know from experience that it occasionally turns out to be right. So I remain willing to be convinced, if I find the arguments are sound and well reasoned, the tone is civil, and there is no insulting appeal to higher authority.

Primary References and Official Series

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The volumes listed in this section appear in, more or less, date order.

(Note, courtesy of the Orion Center, the Contents pages of nine of the DJD volumes can now be viewed by clicking on the highlighted references below.)

(Note further, all DJD volumes can be ordered directly from the Oxford University Press. Publication dates of the DJD volumes in press and all prices are subject to change without notice. Prices are stated in US Dollars and valid only for sales within the United States.

Where available, I have included the Oxford University Press' description of the various DJD volumes.)

Facsimiles, Reproductions, and Reconstructions

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  • Scrolls from Qumran Cave I: The Great Isaiah Scroll, the Order of the Community, the Pesher to Habakkuk, F. M. Cross, et al. (eds.), photographs by J. Trever (SQI; Cambridge and Jerusalem: Albright Institute of Archaeological Research and the Shrine of the Book, 1972).

  • Scrolls from Qumran Cave 1, J. C. Trever (Jerusalem: Albright Institute of Archaeological Research and Shrine of the Book, 1974).

  • A Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea Scrolls, with an introduction and index by R. H. Eisenman and J. M. Robinson, 2 vols. (ER; Washington, D.C: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1991). [Intro. in English, facsimiles primarily in Hebrew and Aramaic]

  • A Preliminary Edition of the Unpublished Dead Sea Scrolls: The Hebrew and Aramaic Texts from Cave Four: reconstructed and edited by B. Wacholder and M. Abegg, 2 fascs. (Washington: Biblical Archaeology Society, D.C., 1991 and 1993).

  • The Dead Sea Scrolls on Microfiche: A Comprehensive Facsimile Edition of the Texts from the Judaean Desert: Emanuel Tov (ed.), with the collaboration of Stephen J. Pfann, catalog by S. Reed (DSSM; Leiden: E. J. Brill and Israel Antiquities Authority, 1993).

Bibliography of Dead Sea Scroll Studies

Includes Reconstructions, Translations, Analyses, History, Interpretations, Biblical Scholarship, Scroll Scholarship, Archaeology, Paleography, Carbon-14 Dating, Anthropology, and, for certain authors, an even wider range of subjects; especially if the author is or could be considered to be a pivotal, notorious, outrageous, highly respected, controversial, or essential figure in Dead Sea Scroll scholarship, or if the author is or ever was one of the members of the International Team of Editors for the DJD series from Oxford University's Clarendon, Press.

The Junior Seminar Site at Reed College maintains an annotated Dead Sea Scroll Bibliography, which while limited in coverage, is nevertheless very useful for getting some idea about the philosophical persuasion of the individual authors listed. Usually limited to one citation per author. The link here is to the complete Bibliography which can be manually searched by scrolling down the list of authors.

The Orion Center maintains an on-line bibliography which currently seems to specialize in years from 1995 onward. The link letter reference at the beginning of each alphabetical section below takes you to the corresponding page in that bibliography. If you prefer, you can also scan through the entire Orion Center bibliography in one large file.

Quick Index - Alphabetically by Author
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A

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Abegg, Martin G., Jr.

  • see Wacholder, Ben Zion (1991 and 1993).
  • see Wise, Michael O. (1996).

Abel, F.-M

Adams, Robert

Aharoni, Y.

  • '"Expedition B" in The Judean Desert Caves. Archaeological Survey 1960, (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1961) 19-33 (in Hebrew).
  • '"Expedition B - Cave of Horror" in The Judean Desert Caves. Archaeological Survey 1961, (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1962) 159-173 (in Hebrew).

Albright, William Foxwell

  • 'A Biblical Fragment from the Maccabaean Ages: The Nash Papyrus', JBL 56 (1937) 145-176.

Alexander, Philip S.

  • 'Paleography, "Codicology" and the History of Serekh ha-Yahad' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: More copies of the Community Rule survive than of any other sectarian text from Qumran. These copies are spread over at least 150 years and are very diverse as to their handwriting, size, material, general presentation and physical form. This data will be surveyed and an attempt made to integrate it into an account of the transmission and use of the Community Rule at Qumran. It will be argued that any redaction-history of Serekh ha-Yahad which relies only on internal literary and textual analysis, and does not make use of the external physical evidence for transmission is incomplete; any redaction-history that clearly runs counter to the external physical evidence is flawed. It will also be argued that the history of the copying of the Community Rule may provide a secure starting-point for a discussion of scribal practice at Qumran. It is unclear just how many of the Scrolls were actually copied at Qumran. Most would now concede that at least some of the Dead Sea manuscripts were copied elsewhere and brought to Qumran. Not every Scroll is, therefore, evidence for scribal practice at Qumran. The Community Rule is the sectarian text par excellence , and it is a reasonable assumption that its surviving copies were all made at Qumran. It survives in a sufficient number of copies, spread over a sufficient period of time to provide some insight into the distinctive practices of the Qumran "scriptorium." What emerges if we assume that the Serekh ha-Yahad scribal practices are "normative" and compare these with the practices found in the other manuscripts of the Dead Sea cache?]

Allegro, John Marco

  • The Dead Sea Scrolls (U.K.: Hammondsworth, 1956), pbk. ed. (1991).
  • 'Further Messianic References in Qumran Literature', JBL 75 (1956) 174-176.
  • The People of the Dead Sea Scrolls (New York: Doubleday & Co., 1958).
  • The Treasure of the Copper Scroll (London, 1960).
  • Search in the Desert (Garder City, N.Y., 1964).
  • DJD V (1968).
  • The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross; A Study of the Nature and Origins of Christianity within the Fertility Cults of the Ancient Near East (London, 1970).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls: A Reappraisal, 2nd edn (U.K.: Hammondsworth, 1975).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Christian Myth (U.K.: Newton Abbot, 1979), pbk. ed. (1992).
  • All Manner of Men pbk. ed. (1982)
  • Physician, Heal Thyself (1985).
  • Mystery of the Dead Sea Scrolls Revealed (1986).
  • The Chosen People: A Study of Jewish History from the Time of the Exile until the Revolt of Bar Kocheba (hard to find).
  • The End of a Road (hard to find).
  • Lost Gods (hard to find).

Allison, D.

Alter, Robert

Amaru, B. Halpern

  • Rewriting the Bible. Land and Covenant in Post-Biblical Jewish Literature. (Valley Forge, PA: Trinity Press International, 1994).

Anders, Aschim

  • 'Melchizedek and Levi' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The portrait of Levi in certain Jewish works of the Second Temple period (the Aramaic Levi Document, Jubilees 30-32, the Greek Testament of Levi) shares some interesting features with the image of Melchizedek in the Hebrew Bible. Like Melchizedek in Gen 14:18-20, Levi is called "priest for the Most High God," and he is connected with the tithe. Like the priest "according to the order of Melchizedek" in Ps 110:4, Levi is proclaimed as "priest forever."
      While these similarities have long been noted, opinions about their significance differ. Especially intriguing is the question of an eventual connection with the Hasmonean rulers. This raises the issue of the date and tendency of the Levi texts: Are they pro-Hasmonean, anti-Hasmonean, or pre-Hasmonean? Or do they rather represent different opinions or stages of tradition? A related issue concerns the dating of the Melchizedek texts of the Hebrew Bible. Hasmonean dates have recently been proposed for both Gen 14 and Ps 110.
      The paper will reassess the question of the relationship between the Melchizedek and Levi traditions, in the light of recent research on the Qumran fragments of the Aramaic Levi Document and the Book of Jubilees.]

Anderson, A. A.

  • see DJD V (1969).

Ashtor (Strauss), Eli

  • History of the Jews in Egypt and Syria Under the Rule of the Mamlukes, 3 vols. (vols. 1 and 2: Jerusalem, 1944; vol. 3: Jerusalem, 1970).

Audet, J.-P.

Avi-Yonah, Michael

  • Map of Roman Palestine, 2nd edn. (Jerusalem, 1940).
  • 'The Archaeological Survey and Excavation of Masada', ____, N. Avigad, et al. IEJ 7 (1957) 1-60.
  • The Jews Under Roman and Byzantine Rule (Jerusalem, 1984).

Avigad, Nahum

  • see Yadin, Y. (1956).
  • see Avi-Yonah, Michael (1957).
  • 'The Palaeography of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Documents', in Aspects of the Dead Sea Scrolls (= Scripta Hierosolymitana IV) C. Rabin and Y. Yadin (eds.) (Jerusalem, 1958) 56-87.
  • "Expedition A." in The Judean Desert Caves. Archaeological Survey 1960 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1961) 13-18 (in Hebrew).
  • "Expedition A. Nahal David." In The Judean Desert Caves. Archaeological Survey 1961' (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1962) 143-158 (in Hebrew).
  • Discovering Jerusalem (1983).
  • Hebrew Bullae from the Time of Jeremiah : Remnants of a Burnt Archive (hard to find).

Aviram, J.

  • "The Judean Desert Expeditions, 1960." in The Judean Desert Caves. Archaeological Survey 1960 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1961) 5-12 (in Hebrew).
  • "The Judean Desert Expeditions, 1961." in The Judean Desert Caves. Archaeological Survey 1961 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1962) 139-142 (in Hebrew).

B

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Baigent, M.

Baillet, Father Maurice

  • 'Fragments du document de Damas, Qumrán, grotte 6', RB, 63 (1956) 513ff.
  • DJD III: (1962).
  • DJD VII: (1982).

Baltzer, K.

Baneth, D. H.

Bar-Adon, Pesah

  • 'Another Settlement of the Judaean Desert Sect in Ein Ghuweir on the Dead Sea', EI 10 (1971) 72-89.
  • "Expedition C." in The Judean Desert Caves. Archaeological Survey 1960 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1961) 34-48 (in Hebrew).
  • "Expedition C - Cave of the Treasure" in The Judean Desert Caves. Archaeological Survey 1961 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1962) 191-203 (in Hebrew).

Bar-Ilan, Meir

  • 'The Discovery of the Words of Gad the Seer.' JSP 11 (1993) 95-107.
  • 'Reasons for Sectarianism according to the Tannaim and the Impurity of Oil Alleged by the Essenes according to Josephus' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present Rabbinic sources to aid the understanding of the development of sectarianism according to the Rabbis and to explain one of Josephus' statements (War II, viii,3) in regard to the avoidance of oil by the Essenes.
      According to the Rabbis there are few cases when in halakhic matters one does not agree with the rabbinic consensus: he will go astray to build his own altar and/or burn his own red heifer. This might happen, according to the Rabbis when:
        1) one does not agree with the calendar of the Rabbis;
        2) one does not agree with the rabbinic perspective that "all" are reliable when it comes to testify to the purity of Hatat, Qodesh or Hulin (wine and oil).
      It is argued that these are exactly the cases where the Essenes didn't agree with the Rabbis, which in turn, explains their sectarianism. According to the Rabbis, not all oil was always considered pure, since in the days of producing oil, all the people were considered to be pure, so the oil was pure too. However, the oil was considered as impure the whole year round. There is a special Halakha concerning the reliability of "all" to testify to the purity of oil, where the Rabbis claim that without their Halakha, people would be sectarians. According to the Rabbis "all" means people from all social strata: proselytes, manumitted slaves, nethinim, bastards and all kinds of eunuchs. "All" were reliable for the Rabbis but not for the Essenes. It is shown that the rule reflected in Josephus' description is exactly a sectarian rule (according to the Rabbis).
      Rabbinic Halakha shows the background of the Essenes' avoidance of oil (by itself contradicted by few verses in the Temple Scroll), but it is argued that Josephus' explanation of the phenomenon was incorrect.
      ]

Bar-Zohar, Michael

Barag, D.

  • 'The Glassware from the "Cave of Horror". In The Judean Desert Caves. Archaeological Survey 1961' (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1962) 175-182 (in Hebrew).

Bardtke, H.

Bartélemy, Dominique

  • DJD I (1955).

Batto, B.

Bauckham, Richard

  • 'A Quotation from 4QSecond Ezekiel in the Apocalypse of Peter.' RQ 15 (1992) 437-445.
  • 'The Qumran Community and the Gospel of John' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Among the New Testament writings, the Gospel of John has often been thought to show a special affinity with the literature of the Qumran community, such that an actual historical connection between the two has sometimes been postulated. This paper argues that no such connection is convincing. The most striking resemblance is in the dualism of light and darkness in 1QS and John, but it functions differently in the two texts, and this theme in John can be adequately explained as a development from Jewish tradition independent of the specifically Qumran literature. 1QS and John represent independent, not related, developments of the imagery of light and darkness.]

Baumgarten, A.

  • "Review of: L. H. Schiffman, Law, Custom, and Messianism in the Dead Sea Sect (in Hebrew)." Zion 58 (4 1993): 509-13.

Baumgarten, Joseph M.

    Studies in Qumran Law (Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquity, vol. 24) (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1977)
  • "Recent Qumran Discoveries and Halakhah in the Hellenistic-Roman Period." In Jewish Civilization in the Hellenistic-Roman Period in Jerusalem, S. Talmon (ed.) (Trinity Press International, 1991) 147-158.
  • '"Scriptural Citations" in 4Q Fragments of the Damascus Document', JJS 43 (1992) 95-98.
  • "The Purification Rituals in DJD 7" in The Dead Sea Scrolls. Forty Years of Research, D. Dimant and U. Rappaport (eds.) (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1992) 199-209.
  • "Liquids and Susceptibility to Defilement" In Eleventh World Congress of Jewish Studies", D. Assaf (ed.) (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1993) 193-198.
  • 'The Tohorot Texts - Legal and Theological Aspects of Purification' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The ongoing analysis of the Cave 4 Tohora texts enables us to identify new distinguishing characteristics of the sectarian approach to purity. The widespread impression that the sect was invariably the most stringent in all areas of purity is not completely accurate. Thus, in consonance with the later Karaite exegesis, the verb rahas in some texts was taken to signify only washing, while tabal meant complete immersion. Initial washing after contamination was held to be adequate for eating ordinary food. On the other hand, the rites of parah adumah were construed rigorously to require their performance by priests, rather than the young boys used by the Pharisees for preparing the ashes and sprinkling the waters. Interestingly, the sprinkling waters, mey niddah , were apparently held to be effective, not only for corpse impurity, but for sexual uncleanness. There are hints of this in certain non-normative rabbinic sources.
      As to the theology of purification, the liturgical fragments indicate that immersion was associated with the divinely granted atonement and renewal of the ruah qodesh . This calls for new evaluation of the sources pertaining to the later preaching of Yohanan ha-Matbyl.]

Beall, T. S.

  • Josephus's Description of the Essenes Illustrated by the Dead Sea Scrolls (SNTSM 58: Cambridge, 1988).

Bearman, Gregory H.

  • see Phelps, Michael B. (1997).

Bechtel, Elizabeth

Beckwith, R.

  • "The Earliest Enoch Literature and Its Calendar: Marks of Their Origin, Date and Motivation", RQ 10 (1981) 365-403.

Beek, M.

Belis, Mireille

  • 'How to Establish the Original Link between the Scrolls and Their Wrappers' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: We cannot match the wrappers found in Cave 1 with their scrolls. The Bedouins took the manuscripts and removed the linen in which they were folded. There does not exist any photograph of the original shape of a scroll within its wrapper. Nevertheless, would it be possible to follow a method providing an answer to this particular question? My communication will describe:
      1. The linen wrappers found in the cave, and the twenty-two cloths showing lines of two blue wefts; special attention will be paid to the single cloth with an elaborate pattern of intertwining blue rectangles.
      2. The method which I imagine can be applied to the linen cloths and to the scrolls found in Cave 1 comprises a study of the traces left on each of the wrappers by the folds, the measures and the shapes of the damaged areas, and compares them with the original measures, and the degradations of the scrolls themselves. Prof. H. Stegemann has described a somewhat different method for the reconstruction of scrolls from scattered fragments. But, as rolling a scroll and folding a cloth around it is another matter, my own procedure, therefore, cannot be exactly the same. But the results of his method are very useful for my own research. My goal is to determine as far as possible if one of the wrappers could fit one of the still existing manuscripts. Because the blue lined rectangles are all different in the wrappers in which they have been woven, it could then be possible to understand if these varying ornaments have a particular meaning related to the content of the text itself.]

Benoit, Father Pierre

  • DJD II (1961).
  • Human Reality of Sacred Scripture Vol 10 (1964).
  • How Does the Christian Confront the Old Testament (1967).
  • Jesus and the Gospel (1973).
  • Christmas: a Pictorial Pilgrimage (hard to find).
  • Easter; a Pictorial Pilgrimage (hard to find).
  • Jesus and the Gospel (hard to find).
  • The Passion and Resurrection of Jesus Christ (hard to find).

Berger, Klaus

  • Qumran and Jesus. Wahrheit unter Verschluss? (Stuttgart, 1993).

Bernstein, Moshe J.

  • "'Walking in the Festivals of the Gentiles' 4QHosea a 2.15 -17 and Jubilees 6.34-38", JSP 9 (1991) 21-34.
  • "4Q252 i 2. Biblical Text or Biblical Interpretation?" RQ 63 (1994) 421-427.
  • "4Q252: From Re-Written Bible to Biblical Commentary", JJS 45 (1994) 1-27.
  • "4Q252: Method and Context, Genre and Sources. A Response to George J. Brooke", JQR 85 (1-2 1994) 61-79.
  • "Introductory Formulas for Citation and Re-Citation of Biblical Verses in the Qumran Pesharim: Observations on a Pesher Technique", DSD 1 (1 1994) 30-69.
  • "Response to G. J. Brooke: The Thematic Content of 4Q252", JQR 85 (1994-95) 61-79.
  • 'The Interpretation of the Book of Isaiah at Qumran' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The Book of Isaiah was at Qumran one of the most popular works of what we characterize today as the Hebrew Bible. This fact is reflected in the approximately twenty manuscripts of Isaiah found in the caves, and in the five different pesharim on Isaiah found in Cave 4. Various other Qumran documents, such as CD, 4QFlorilegium, and 11QMelchizedek, also contain exegetical remarks on Isaiah. This paper will survey the scope and method of Qumran interpretation of Isaiah with an eye toward drawing a comprehensive portrait of the ways in which the Qumran community understood and interpreted this biblical book.]

Berrin, Shani L.

  • 'Lemma/Pesher Correspondence' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Herbert Basser in "Pesher Hadavar " (RQ 13, 1988) discusses the two antithetical meanings of the root p.sh.r: "loosening" and "coming together." Many of George Brooke's important discussions of the pesher genre reflect this duality, which may be expressed as tension between "revelation" and "exegesis," or between "atomization" and "correspondence." Etymologically, most Qumran scholars stress the "loosening" aspect of the term pesher . Textually, though, it is the close relationship between pesher and base-text which is stressed in most discussions of the genre. However, this relationship, or "correspondence," has meant different things to different people. To impose some order on the discussion, correspondence may be categorized into three types: numerical, exegetical, and contextual. All three are to be viewed as characteristic of the lemma/pesher relationship.
      The correspondence types are illustrated in this presentation by an analysis of 1QS 2:5-10. Though lacking any formulaic introductions or the word "pesher," this passage may reasonably be called "implicit pesher." Its particularly clear employment of "pesher -like" techniques provides a useful basis for description.
      With the parameters established, the nature of the lemma/pesher correspondence in col.1, of fag. 3-4 of Pesher Nahum is investigated. In Nahum 2:12-13, the prophet employs an extended lion metaphor to describe the status and fate of Nineveh, promising the divine destruction of the seemingly invincible Assyrian Empire. Nahum's depiction of the lion must appropriately reflect both the historical fate of Assyria and the natural behavior of lions. Correspondence between the pesher and its base-text must be sought in some or all of the concepts and elements of the lemma . Interpretations of the pesher must be evaluated in terms of their reflection of such correspondence.]

Betz, O.

  • "Kurtzbericht über das Wissenschaftliche Kolloquium 'Akkulturation und Politische Ordnung in Hellenismus' vom 10.3-14.3 1994 in Berlin", QC 4 (3/4 1994) 135-138.
  • "Report on the Symposium on the Dead Sea Scrolls at Austin, Texas", QC 4 (3/4 1994) 129-134.

Beyer, K.

  • Die aramäischen Texte vom Toten Meer samt den Inschriften aus Palästina, dem Testament Levis aus der Kairoer Genisa, Der Fastenrolle und den alten talmudischen Zitaten (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1984). [a supplement completing the Aramaic texts was issued in 1994]

Bianchi, U.

Bickerman, Elias

  • The Jews in the Greek Age (Cambridge, Mass., 1988).

Bietenhard, H.

Billington, James H.

Binyamin, B.

  • "Birkat Ha-minim and the Ein Gedi Inscription", Immanuel 21 (1987) 68-77.

Birnbaum, Solomon A.

  • The Qumran (Dead Sea) Scrolls and Palaeography (BASOR Supp. Studies 13-14: New Haven, 1952).
  • The Hebrew Script (Leiden, 1971).

Bissoli, G.

  • "Qumran", in Il Tempio Nella Letteratura Giudaica e Neotestamentaria (Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, 1994) 34-56.

Black, Matthew

  • The Scrolls and Christian Origins (London, 1961).
  • See Vermes, Geza (1973-87).

Boer, P. A. H. de

Bohak, G.

  • Joseph and Aseneth and the Jewish Temple in Heliopolis Ph.D. Dissertation, Princeton University, 1994.

Bonani, G.

  • see Wölfi, W. (1991)

Booras, Steven W.

  • 'Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS)' presented with Donald W. Parry and E. J. Wilson at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The FARMS/BYU DSS Database comprises a comprehensive, fully indexed, and cross-linked computerized database of the Hebrew Bible and transcriptions of the non-biblical DSS texts, photographs of the scrolls, and translations. Many of the Database's functions were presented at the 1996 International Conference on the Dead Sea Scrolls, held at Brigham Young University. This presentation will focus on a single function of the Database that permits the user to access large quantities of textual material, simultaneously and instantaneously, while searching for single letters, words, phrases, and a combination of words.
      The database permits the user to perform both single and multiple word searches by the use of a WordWheel that lists every word with the number of occurrences of each word and a total count in a given text. The WordWheel presents the words in alphabetical order in the text language (Hebrew, English, Greek, etc.), and text windows are created by clicking on a word with the mouse.
      The search apparatus permits searching by using wildcards (* = multiple characters or ? = a single character), wherein the user types in three or four characters of a word (which may appear at the beginning, middle, or end of the word, and which may also appear on one, two, or three different lines) and then the search engine seeks all attestations of the characters in the DSS library.
      Wildcard searches have assisted the presenters in identifying previously unidentified scroll fragments from 4QSama. We will provide specific examples of successful searches by using the search apparatus. The presentation will be carefully choreographed. Donald Parry will formally present the paper while Steven Booras demonstrates the database by using a computer (we will enlarge the computer screen by using a LCD plate, overhead projector, and screen).]

Bornkamm, G.

Bouard, Michel de

Bousset, W.

Boyd-Alkalay, Esther
  • see Libman, Elena (1997).

Boyer, P.

Braun, F.-M.

Brin, G.

  • "The Laws of the Prophets in the Sect of the Judaean Desert: Studies in 4Q375", JSP 10 (1992) 19-51.
  • "Regarding the Connection Between the Temple Scroll and the Book of Jubilees", JBL 112 (1993) 108-109.
  • Issues in the Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls (Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad Publishing House, 1994) (in Hebrew).
  • Studies in Biblical Law: From the Hebrew Bible to the Dead Sea Scrolls (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1994).

Brooke, George J.

  • "The Temple Scroll and the archaeology of Qumran, 'Ain Feshkha and Masada", RQ 13 (1-4 1988) 225-237.
  • Temple Scroll Studies ____ (ed.) (Sheffield, U.K., 1989).
  • "The Temple Scroll and LXX Exodus 35-40", in Septuagint, Scrolls and Cognate Writings, G.J. Brooke and B. Lindars (eds.) 33. (Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1992) 81-106.
  • "The Textual Tradition of the Temple Scroll and Recently Published Manuscripts of the Pentateuch", in The Dead Sea Scrolls. Forty Years of Research, D. Dimant and U. Rappaport (eds.) (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1992) 261-282.
  • Septuagint, Scrolls and Cognate Writings, ___ and B. Lindars (eds.) 33 (Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1992).
  • "4Q254 Fragments 1 and 4, and 4Q254 a", in Eleventh World Congress of Jewish Studies in Jerusalem, D. Assaf (ed.) (Magnes Press, 1993) 185-192.
  • "The Thematic Content of 4Q252", JQR 85 (1994-95) 33-59.
  • 'Biblical Interpretation in the Qumran Scrolls and the New Testament' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The principal purpose of this paper will be to argue that though there are many similarities in method in the handling of scriptural traditions in both the Qumran Scrolls and the New Testament, there is less overlap in content than is often supposed. Examples will be given to illustrate this thesis from five areas of exegesis: the legal use of scripture, the narrative use, the admonitory use, the poetic and liturgical use, and the prophetic use. The most widely known kind of scriptural interpretation which is considered to be characteristic of the community responsible for many of the sectarian scrolls from Qumran is that of pesher . This kind of interpretation of prophetic scriptural texts in the Qumran Scrolls is often thought to lie behind many of the fulfillment quotations in the New Testament. It will be argued, however, that as in other kinds of scriptural interpretation, the differences between Qumran and the New Testament are as important as the similarities. Thus whereas in large measure the interpretation of scripture in the pesharim is controlled by the text of scripture itself, in the New Testament, fulfillment quotations function merely
      to illustrate the authority of a narrative based on other assumptions. Overall the paper will make a plea for scriptural interpretation in the Scrolls and the New Testament to be set alongside one another, not so that differences dissolve but for the better understanding of the handling of authoritative traditions in both bodies of texts.]

Broshi, Magen.

  • see Wölfi, W. (1991).
  • "The Archaeology of Qumran. A Reconsideration." in The Dead Sea Scrolls. Forty Years of Research, D. Dimant and U. Rappaport (eds.) (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1992) 103-115.
  • The Damascus Document Reconsidered, ____ (ed.) (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society and Shrine of the Book, 1992).
  • 'The Study of Ink Used at Qumran' presented with Yoram Nir-el at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The Qumran scrolls were written with a black ink. Ancient black inks were of two types: carbon ink, based on lampblack or soot; and iron-gall ink, consisting of copperas (green vitriol, iron (II) sulfate hepta-hydrate), treated with a decoction of crushed oak-nut galls. A very rare application of red ink on the Qumran manuscripts was found on only four fragments. Red ink was used in antiquity to write rubrics, that is, words at the beginning of a chapter, words at paragraph divisions, titles, or instructions for liturgical readings. In the present study, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was employed for the specification of the chemical elements present in the Qumran black and red inks. This non-destructive analytical method does not require preliminary sample treatment and no residual effects are induced in the sample. The black ink analyses, of many parchment and papyrus fragments, provided evidence that it was not of the iron-gall type. Hence, it was based on a carbonaceous pigment. An iron-based black ink was invented, according to the Babylonian Talmud, by the Tanna Rabbi Meir (second century CE). This makes the introduction of the new ink to have occurred a short time after the disappearance of the Qumran community. The very severe degradation in badly decayed inscribed regions of some Qumran scrolls, mainly in the Genesis Apocryphon, is explained by the presence of binding constituents and metal ions in the black ink, and by adverse environmental changes (relative humidity, temperature). The XRF analyses showed that the red ink was based on a mercury compound, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was also employed for the identification of the red pigment, which was found to be the mineral mercury sulfide (HgS), known usually by the name cinnabar. The significant archaeological and historical aspects of this unique finding are discussed, and a route of importing this expensive material (first century BC), from the mine near Almaden in Spain, via Rome, to Jericho and Qumran, is proposed.]

Brown, R. E.

Brownlee, W. H.

  • 'The Jerusalem Habakkuk Scroll', BASOR 112 (1948) 8-18.
  • see Burrows, M. (1950).
  • The Dead Sea Manual of Discipline, Translation and Notes, BASOR Supplementary Studies 10-12 (New Haven, 1951).
  • 'The Scroll of Ezekiel from the Eleventh Qumran Cave', RQ 4 (1963-64) 11-28.

Bruce, F. F.

  • Second Thoughts on the Dead Sea Scrolls (London, 1956).
  • Biblical Exegesis in the Qumran Texts (Grand Rapids, Mich., 1959).

Bultmann, R.

Burkes, S.

  • "Methods of Investigation of the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Khirbet Qumran Site: Present Realities and Future Prospects", JBL 115 (1994) 185-186.

Burnham, Irene

Burrows, Millar

  • The Dead Sea Scrolls of St. Marks Monastery, ____ , J. C. Trever and W. H. Brownlee (eds), 2 fascs. (New Haven: The American Schools of Oriental Research, 1950 and 1951).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls (New York, 1955; London, 1956).
  • More Light on the Dead Sea Scrolls (New York, 1958).
  • Documents Bearing on the History of the Judean Desert Sect, ___, J. Trever, W.H. Brownlee, and D. Barthélemy (eds.), classroom edition (Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1992) (in Hebrew).

Burton, D., J. B. Poole and R. Reed

  • 'A new approach to the Dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls', Nature 184 (1959) 533-534.

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Cameron, R.

Cansdale, Lena

  • 'The Qumran Scrolls: A 2000 Year Old Apple of Discord', in Ancient History: Resources for Teachers 21, no. 2 (Macquarie University 1991) 98-99.
  • "Women Members of the Yahad according to the Qumran Scrolls" in Eleventh World Congress of Jewish Studies in Jerusalem, D. Assaf (ed.) (Magnes Press, 1993) 215-222.
  • "The Name of Qumran in Post-Biblical and Modern Times", QC 4 (3/4 1994) 157-168.
  • 'The Metamorphosis of the Name "Qumran"' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The name "Qumran" by which the ancient ruins on the western shore of the Dead Sea are known today has come into use only in modern times. We have no sources available to tell us what the settlement was called when it flourished in antiquity.
      Two names have been suggested for the settlement when it was first established during the Judean Monarchy period c. 800 BCE; "City of Salt" and "Seccacah". The paper will argue for the more likely choice. For the Second Temple period the name "Citadel of the Pious" has been suggested and will be discussed.
      The main part of the paper will concentrate on 19th century explorers and travelers and will trace the possible derivation of the name Qumran from their writings. It will also be suggested that the name could have come down to us from antiquity through the connection of the Dead Sea area with a flourishing perfume industry.]

Carmi, Israel.

  • see Wölfi, W. (1991)
  • 'Dating Dead Sea Scrolls by Radiocarbon' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Radiocarbon and the epoch of the Dead Sea Scroll began close to the founding of the State of Israel and had a brief encounter when W.F.Libby, the inventor of radiocarbon dating, proudly measured the age of the fabric that wrapped a scroll and Yigael Yadin used his data to anchor the time of writing of the scroll.
      Following this brief encounter the two disciplines went their own separate ways for some 40 years and met again in the early 90s. Radiocarbon could not be used during this time because it required several grams of organic matter for dating. For the scrolls this implied
      a decision between "Scrolls or Dates", with the obvious decision for "Scrolls". During this time interval the discipline of the Dead Sea Scrolls studies refined the dating of scrolls by paleographic analysis, to a resolution of a few decades.
      Radiocarbon is produced steadily in the atmosphere and is incorporated in all living matter in a constant proportion relative to its total carbon. When this matter dies it no longer incorporates fresh radiocarbon from the atmosphere and its radiocarbon content now begins to be lost because of radioactive disintegration. This reduces the ratio at a constant rate, so that after 5,700 years (t1/2) only 50% of the original ratio is retained in the matter. This constant rate of decay is the base of radiocarbon dating.
      During the 80s, a method of radiocarbon dating that requires minute samples (2 mg of carbon) was brought to maturity (AMS) and this made possible a new series of dating of scrolls. The request for objective dating gained weight in the scrolls community and in 1990 a first series of scrolls were dated in the Zurich AMS facility. In 1995 a second series of samples were dated in the Tucson facility. The Zurich series was used for calibration with scrolls of known ages and the Tucson series included some samples of unknown ages. The agreement between dates of the same scroll in the two laboratories is perfect and the agreement of the dates of the two labs with scrolls of known ages is excellent. The road is now opened for objective dating of Dead Sea Scrolls as necessary.]

Carmignac, Jean

  • "Les Rapports entre l'Ecclésiastique et Qumrân", RQ 3 (1961) 209-218.
  • Christ and the Teacher of Righteousness (Baltimore, 1962).
  • "L'infinitif absolu chez Ben Sira et à Qumrán" RQ 12 (1986) 251-261.

Cavallin, H. C.

Chamberlain, J. V.

Charles, R. H.

  • The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1913).

Charlesworth, James H.

  • The Pseudepigrapha and Modern Research, With a Supplement (Septuagint and Cognate Studies Series ; No. 7) pbk. ed. (1981).
  • History of the Rechabites : The Greek Recension (Texts and Translations, No 17) Vol 1 ____ (ed.), pbk. ed. (1982).
  • The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha : Apocalyptic Literature and Testaments Vol. 1 ____ (ed.) (fasc. 1; Garder City, 1983).
  • The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament: Prolegomena for the Study of Christian Origins Vol 54 (1985).
  • Old Testament Pseudepigrapha : Expansions of the 'Old Testament' and Legends, Wisdom and Philosophical Literature, Prayers, Psalms, and Odes, Fragments ..., Vol. 2 ____ (ed.) (fasc. 2; Garder City, 1985).
  • Discovery of a Dead Sea Scroll (4QTherapeia : Its Importance in the History of Medicine and Jesus Research) pbk. ed. (1985).
  • Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (1986).
  • The New Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha : A Guide to Publications, With Excursuses on Apocalypses (Atla Bibliography Series, No 17) ____ and James R. Mueller (eds.) (1987).
  • Jesus Within Judaism : New Light from Exciting Archaeological Discoveries (Anchor Bible Reference Library) (1988).
  • Paul and the Dead Sea Scrolls (Christian Origins Library) Jerome Murphy-O'Connor and ____ (eds.) pbk. ed. (1990).
  • Jews and Christians : Exploring the Past, Present, and Future (Shared Ground Among Jews and Christians : A Series of Explorations Volume I) Vol 1 (1990).
  • John and the Dead Sea Scrolls (Christian Origins Library) ____ (ed.) (New York, 1990).
  • Graphic Concordance to the Dead Sea Scrolls (Princeton Theological Seminary Dead Sea Scrolls Project) ____ (ed.) (1991).
  • The Messiah (The Anchor Bible Reference Library) ____ (ed.) (1991).
  • The Scrolls and the New Testament (Christian Origins Library) Krister Stendahl and ____ (eds.) pbk. ed. (1991).
  • "Qumran in Relation to the Apocrypha, Rabbinic Judaism, and Nascent Christianity: Impacts on University Teaching of Jewish Civilization in the Hellenistic-Roman Period" in Jewish Civilization in the Hellenistic-Roman Period in Jerusalem, S. Talmon (ed.) (Trinity Press International, 1991) 168-180.
  • What Has Archaeology to Do With Faith? (Faith and Scholarship Colloquies) ____ and Walter P. Weaver (eds.) pbk. ed. (1992).
  • The Messiah : Developments in Earliest Judaism and Christianity : The First Princeton Symposium on Judaism and Christian Origins ____ (ed.) (1992).
  • Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls ____ (ed.) (Garden City, N.Y., 1992).
  • 'The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Historical Jesus', in Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls ____ (ed.) (Garden City, N.Y., 1992) 1-74.
  • "The Princeton Theological Seminary Dead Sea Scrolls Project", JSP 10 (1992) 5-10.
  • Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls (1993).
  • Overcoming Fear Between Jews and Christians (Shared Ground Among Jews and Christians, Vol 3) ____, et al (1993).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls : Rule of the Community and Related Documents : Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek Texts With English Translations (Princeton Theologica) Volume 1 Rule of the Community and Related Documents, ____ (ed.), sith F. M. Cross, J. Milgrom, E. Qimron, L. H. Schiffman, L. T. Stuckenbruck and R. E. Whitaker (Tübingen: J. C. B Mohr and Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994).
  • The Lord's Prayer and Other Prayer Texts from the Greco-Roman Era ____, et al (1994).
  • The Old and New Testaments : Their Relationship and the 'Intertestamental' Literature (Faith and Scholarship Colloquies) ____ and Walter P. Weaver (eds.) pbk. ed. (1994).
  • Images of Jesus Today (Faith and Scholarship Colloquies, No 3) ____ and Walter P. Weaver (eds.) pbk. ed. (1994a).
  • The Pseudepigrapha and Early Biblical Interpretation (JSP Supplement) ____ , et al (eds.) (1994).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls. Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek Texts with English Translations. Vol. 1, Rule of the Community and Related Documents. The Princeton Theological Seminary Dead Sea Scrolls Project. Charlesworth, J. H. (ed.) (Tübingen/Louisville, KY: J. C. B. Mohr (Siebeck), 1994).
  • Qumran Questions. (Biblical Seminar Ser No 36) pbk. ed. ((1995).
  • The Faith of Qumran : Theology of the Dead Sea Scrolls ____, Helmer Ringgren, et al (eds.) pbk. ed. (1995).
  • Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls (The Anchor Bible Reference Library) pbk. ed. (1995).
  • Earthing Christologies : From Jesus' Parables to Jesus the Parable (Faith and Scholarship Colloquies) ____ and Walter P. Weaver (eds.) pbk. ed. (1995).
  • The Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament (Christian Origins Library) pbk. ed. (1995).
  • The Beloved Disciple : Whose Witness Validates the Gospel of John? (1995).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls : Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek Texts With English Translations : Damascus Document, War Scroll, and Related Documents (Princeton th Vol 2 ____ , et al (eds.) (1995).
  • The First Christian Hymnbook : The Odes of Solomon pbk. ed. (1995).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls : Rule of the Community ____ , et al (eds.) (1996).
  • Jesus Jewishness pbk. ed. (1996).
  • Hillel and Jesus : Comparisons of Two Major Religious Leaders ____ and Loren L. Johns (eds.) (1997).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls; Angelic Liturgy, Prayers, and Psalms, vol. 4 Vol 4 (1997).
  • The New Discoveries in St. Catherine's Monastery : a Preliminary Report on the Manuscripts (hard to find).
  • 'The Dead Sea Scrolls and the New Testament' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls and research upon them have significantly enriched our understanding of Second Temple Judaism and the origins of the concepts and writings in the so-called New Testament. Methodologically, it is imperative to ascertain the ideas and technical terms peculiar to the Qumranites and to focus solely on them in seeking to discern possible influences from Qumran upon the NT. Thus, it is imperative to eliminate a possible relationship between Qumran and the NT from traditions and terms that are also found in the Hebrew Scriptures and Jewish writings that also antedate 70 CE. The lecture will evaluate Qumran influences upon John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth, and try to explain the widely recognized Qumran influences upon the Gospels of Matthew and John and the writings from the Pauline School.]

Chazon, Esther G.

  • A Liturgical Document from Qumran and Its Implications: "Words of the Luminaries" (4QDibHam) (in Hebrew) Ph.D., Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1991.
  • "4QDibHam: Liturgy or Literature?", RQ (1992).
  • "Is Divrei ha-me'orot a Sectarian Prayer?" in The Dead Sea Scrolls. Forty Years of Research, D. Dimant and U. Rappaport (eds.) (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1992) 3-17.
  • "On the Special Character of Sabbath Prayer: New Data from Qumran", Journal of Jewish Music and Liturgy 15 (1992-1993) 1-21.
  • "New Liturgical Manuscripts from Qumran" in Eleventh World Congress of Jewish Studies, D. Assaf (ed.) (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1993) 207-214.
  • "Prayers from Qumran and Their Historical Implications", DSD 1 (3 1994) 266-284.
  • 'The Function of the Qumran Prayer Texts' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The Qumran sect's secession from the Jerusalem Temple created a cultic and spiritual vacuum in the life of that community. This vacuum was filled in large measure by prayer which was conceptualized as "an offering of the lips" (1QS 9:5). Prayer's role at Qumran as a substitute for the Temple cult fostered its development there as a communal, religious institution of worship on fixed occasions (daily, weekly, monthly, and annually). At the same time, as the primary mode of service to and contact with God, prayer flourished at Qumran as a multi-faceted religious phenomenon. Thus, besides fulfilling ritual requirements, providing steady worship, offering constant praise and petitioning for daily needs, prayer also became a medium for experiencing the heavenly realm, a part of eschatological preparations, and a means of affirming commitment to the divine law and sectarian rules. This paper will categorize and characterize the principal functions of the hundreds of prayer texts preserved at Qumran, thereby providing a broad perspective for more specialized research. A main focus of such research will be prayers said on a daily basis which surely must have held a central place and formative position in religious life and thought.]

Chiesa, Bruno

  • 'Biblical and Parabiblical Texts from Qumran' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The recent publication of a number of Qumran texts clearly related to the Biblical writings, but offering a different arrangement of the contents, not to say additional materials, obliges us to rethink the question of the Biblical "canon" and, more generally, the question of the status of the Biblical writings at the end of the Second Temple period. As appears from studies by M. Kister (RB 97, 1990, 63-67) and R. Bauckham ("Memorial Starcky" II, 1992, 437-445), it seems highly probable that the "Biblical" corpus was at that time more extensive than the one familiar to us. A systematic research into the first Christian works is likely to disclose not only unexpected parallels to some Qumran texts, but also to offer a key for a strictly historically oriented understanding of the progressive constitution of a Biblical "canon".]

Clermont-Ganneau, Charles S.

  • Archaeological Researches in Palestine during the Years 1873-1874 vol 2 (London, 1896).
  • From the Maccabees to the Mishnah (Philadelphia, 1987).

Cohen, N.G.

  • "Josephus and Scripture: Is Josephus' Treatment of the Scriptural Narrative Similar Throughout the Antiquities 1-11?" JQR 54 (4 1964) 311-332.
  • Jewish Names and Their Significance in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods in Asia Minor. Notes and Appendices (in Hebrew) (1969).

Collins, John Joseph

  • 'A Pre-Christian "Son of God" Among the Dead Sea Scrolls', BR (June 1993) 34-39.
  • "The Works of the Messiah" Sample Issue (1994) 1-15.
  • see Wise, Michael O. (1994).
  • 'Qumran Apocalypticism and the New Testament' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Apocalypticism was a world view first developed in Judaism in the books of Enoch and Daniel in the late third or early second centuries BCE. Its distinctive features were a claim to a special kind of revelation, interest in the heavenly world and expectation of a final judgment that would entail reward and punishment of the dead. These books were influential at Qumran, but the sect modified the apocalyptic world view in important ways. Instead of angelic visions, they relied on inspired exegesis as their primary mode of revelation, and they claimed to enjoy in the present the fellowship with the angels that was promised to the righteous after death in Enoch and Daniel.
      Jesus of Nazareth bears some superficial similarity to the Teacher of Righteousness insofar as both claim to preach an eschatological message, in the manner of the prophet in Isaiah 61. Their messages, however, were very different, and there is no good evidence that the Teacher was ever regarded as a messiah. The early church resembles the Qumran community insofar as both are apocalyptic communities, that believed they were living in the end of days. The drama of salvation had begun, although the final deliverance was yet to come. But the ethos of the two groups was vastly different. The Dead Sea sect was focused on the Torah, while Christianity became anti-nomian in some (but not all) of its forms. Christianity also attached much more importance to the idea of resurrection, and the veneration of Christ had no real parallel at Qumran.]

Cook, Edward. M.

  • see Wise, Michael O. (1996).

Cooke, J.

  • "On the Relationship between 11QPsa and the Septuagint on the Basis of the Computerized Data Base (CAQP)", in Septuagint, Scrolls and Cognate Writings, G.J. Brooke and B. Lindars (eds.) (Atlanta, Georgia: Scholars Press, 1992) 107-130.

Copeland, Miles

Coppens, J.

Cotton, Hannah M.

  • "The Guardianship of Jesus Son of Babatha: Roman and Local Law in Province of Arabia" JRS 83 (1993) 94-108.
  • "A Cancelled Marriage Contract from the Judean Desert" JRS 84 (1994) 64-86.
  • "Loan with Hypothec: Another Papyrus from the Cave of Letters?" ZPE 101 (1994) 53-60.
  • "The Economic Importance of Herod's Masada: The Evidence of the Jar Inscriptions", ____ and J. Geiger, in Judaea and the Greco-Roman World in the Time of Herod in Light of Archaeological Evidence, K. Fittschen and G. Foerster (eds.) (Göttingen: Vandenhoech and Ruprecht, 1989) 163-170.
  • "Babatha's Property and the Law of Succession in the Babatha Archive", ____ and J.C. Greenfield, ZPE 104 (1994) 211-224.
  • 'The Diplomatics of the Greek Documents from the Judean Desert: Linguistic and Legal Aspects' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Diplomatics include the external features of the documents which to varying degrees throw light on legal and social aspects of the society in which they were written. Therefore, the diplomatics of the documents from the Judean Desert can tell us about Jewish society at the time. The following elements are included:
      1. The material on which the documents are written.
      2. The layout of the documents (e.g. double document or single document).
      3. The relationship between inner and outer text.
      4. The direction of writing, viz. against or along the fibres.
      5. The languages employed in the several parts of the document(s).
      6. The presence or absence of subscriptions; the function of the subscriber vis-a-vis that of the scribe.
      7. The witnesses (technical aspects of placing their signatures; number of witnesses etc.).
      8. Dating formulae and the order of the several dates.
      9. The presence or absence of a legal representative (guardian) in the case of women, and their precise function.
      I propose to give a short survey of the corpus Greek documentary texts from the Judean Desert, both published and unpublished, based on E. Tov with the collaboration of
      S. J. Pfann, The Dead Sea Scrolls on Microfiche , Companion Volume (Revised edition: Leiden, 1995) and on H. M. Cotton, W. Cockle and F. Millar, "The Papyrology of the Roman Near East: A Survey," JRS 85 (1995) 214-35.
      The Greek documentary texts from the Judean Desert should be seen in three contexts:
      1. The documentary texts in other languages from the Judean Desert, namely Hebrew, Aramaic and Nabatean.
      2. The rapidly growing corpus of Greek papyri from the Aramaic speaking Roman Near East.
      3. Egyptian papyrology.
      Although written in several languages, the papyri from the Judean Desert emerged from a single Jewish society of non-Hellenized or only semi-Hellenized Jews. What does the use of the several languages tell us about this society? Does the use of one language, as against others, determine no more than the diplomatics of the documents, or does it reveal to us the coexistence of different legal systems within this society?]

Coüasnon, P.

Couroyer, B.

Crawford, Sidnie White

  • '4Q158 as a Manuscript of 4QReworked Pentateuch' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: 4Q158 was originally published by John Allegro in 1968 as a separate manuscript under the title "A Biblical Paraphrase: Genesis, Exodus." However, the editors of 4QReworked Pentateuch (4Q364-367), Emanuel Tov and Sidnie White Crawford, identified in 1992 4Q158 as a fifth manuscript of 4QRP. The paper will first explore the reasons for that identification:
      1. 4Q158 contains a running biblical text interlaced with exegetical additions.
      2. 4Q158 uses a "proto-Samaritan" base text, as does 4QRP.
      3. 4Q158 contains the same type of changes to the biblical text as 4QRP, namely the juxtaposition of non-sequential biblical texts on the basis of subject, the rearrangement of biblical texts, and the insertion of hitherto unknown material into the biblical text (often for harmonizing purposes).
      Next, the paper will present three fragments from 4Q158, frgs. 1-2, frg. 4, and frgs. 7-8, which contain changes and/or exegetical additions to 4Q158's base text (the so-called proto-Samaritan text). The paper will discuss the purpose of the changes and the additions, and compare these to similar examples from 4Q364-367, thereby bringing 4Q158 into the broader context of 4QReworked Pentateuch.]

Cross, Frank Moore - 1996 Interview by Benjamin H. Kleine

  • Early Hebrew Orthography : A Study of the Epigraphic Evidence ____, Jr. and David N. Freeman (pbk; 1952).
  • The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern Biblical Studies (London, 1958), rev. 2nd ed. (London; Garden City: Anchor Books, 1961; Grand Rapids, 1980; pbk. ed. 1982), rev. and ext. 3rd ed. (Sheffield Academic Press, 1995), pbk. ed. (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995). [The 1995 pbk. ed., titled The Ancient Library of Qumran, is so shabbily constructed that it starts falling apart during the first hour of reading.]
  • 'The Development of the Jewish Scripts', in The Bible and the Ancient Near East. Essays in Honor of William Foxwell Albright G. E. Wright (ed.) (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1961) 133-202.
  • 'Discovery of the Samaritan Papyri' , BA 26 (1963) 110-121.
  • 'The Development of the Jewish Scripts', The Bible and the Ancient Near East. Essays in Honor of William Foxwell Albright, G. E. Wright (ed.) (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1961) 133-202 and (Garden City, N.Y., 1965) 170-264.
  • Scrolls from the Wilderness of the Dead Sea, ____ and M. E. Stone (eds.) (Berkeley: American Schools of Oriental Research, 1965)
  • 'Papyri of the Fourth Century BC from Daliyeh: A Preliminary Report on Their Discovery and Significance', New Directions in Biblical Archaeology, D. N. Freedman and J. C. Greenfield (eds.) (Garden City: Doubleday and Co., 1971) 45-69.
  • Scrolls from the Qumran Cave 1: The Great Isaiah Scroll, The Order of the Community, the Pesher to Habakkuk, ____, et al. (eds.) (Cambridge and Jerusalem: Albright Institute of Archaeological Research and the Shrine of the Book, 1972).
  • Qumran and the History of the Biblical Text, ____ and S. Talmon (eds.) (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1975).
  • Qumran and the History of the Biblical Text, ____ and S. Talmon (eds.) (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1975).
  • 'Samaria Papyrus I: An Aramaic Slave Conveyance of 335 BCE found in the Wadi ed-Daliyeh', EI 18 (1985) 7-17.
  • 'A Report on the Samaria Papyri', XII Congress of the IOSOT, J. A. Emerton, (ed.) (Leiden, 1988).
  • Amos : A Commentary on the Book of Amos, Shalom M. Paul and ____ (eds.) (1991).
  • See Charlesworth, James H., Princeton Theologica, vol. 1 (1994).
  • Frank Moore Cross : Conversations With a Bible Scholar ____ and Hershel Shanks (ed.) (1994).
  • DJD XII (1994).
  • DJD XIV (1995).
  • Studies in Ancient Yahwistic Poetry (Biblical Resource Series) ____ et al (pbk. ed.; 1997).
  • Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic; Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel (Cambridge, 1973; pbk. ed., 1997).

Crown, Alan

  • 'An Alternative View of the Nature of the Qumran Settlement' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: There is ample evidence that in the century before the fall of the temple the area around Qumran was teeming with people and that Qumran itself was a township that served as a node in the caravan and transit trade between the coast, Jerusalem and Arabia. It was one of a chain of townships and fortresses that was built by the Hasmoneans for the purpose of defense and supply.
      The township had no relationship to the Essenes. They lived well to the south at En Geddi as stated by Pliny and other witnesses and confirmed by the Romans in the conquest of Jerusalem when, as part of their reduction of the south, they built the Ascent of the Essenes from En Geddi to Jerusalem and not from Qumran. The large cemetery with nearly a thousand graves remains a key factor. It has been argued that it was the central burial site for the garrisons in the vicinity. It may well have been the burial plot for travelers prevented from going to Jerusalem when they had some sickness. Jerusalem was in many respects a protected and 'clean' city.
      It is one thing to argue that Qumran could not have been an Essene site on functional grounds. It is another task that falls to this sort of criticism to explain away the scrolls which gave the Essene identification in the first place. What then were the scrolls that were found at Qumran if they were not Essene?
      As others, the author feels that they were a genizah. First, they lacked the book of Esther, not at all an accident but because the Talmud tells us that Esther was not a book which made the hands unclean and it was not intended to be a written tale but an oral performance. Esther was the one book of the Tanakh on which all agreed there need be no genizah. Then, none of the books can be shown to support a philosophy that was only Essene and not Jewish for others. The scrolls represent the latitudiarianism of the first century pre-destruction Jewish philosophies in a period when there were no Jewish sects at all but only "philosophical" differences. If one ignores the Essene identification one could make a case if one tried for the scrolls to represent the Samaritan point of view and Miqtsat Maase Torah makes a case for these scrolls to represent Klal Yisrael in a range of views. Since they do not represent one "sectarian" viewpoint, and since the site was a node with maximum traffic, since the Romans tell us the Essenes were at En Geddi and since it was the central burial ground for a region and for travelers, we can abandon the Essenes and look at the place as holding a genizah.[

Cullmann, O.

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Dacy, Marianne

  • 'The Epistle to Barnabas and the Dead Sea Scrolls' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The Epistle to Barnabas, an early Christian document, shows certain characteristics which mirror ideas in Qumran material, and the Judaism of Philo of Alexandria. These characteristics include: an allegorical method of biblical exegesis, the quotation of texts from the Hebrew Bible and their application to contemporary events, a communal ideal, a spirituality which reflects high ethical standards, and an emphasis on the concept of "da'at" knowledge. "For the Lord has made known to us though the prophets things past and things present and has given us the first fruits of the taste of things to come...." (Epistle of Barnabas 1.7).
      This latter concept of "da'at", as reflection on the interpretation of past, present and future, for example, and other aspects of this concept will be explored in more detail in Barnabas and a selection of Qumran texts such as I QS ix,17ff, I Qp Hab ii.14. etc. so as to gain an insight into a range of ideas current in first century Judaism in the milieu in which the nascent Church arose.]

Dahl, N. A.

Daise, Michael A.

  • 'Biblical Creation Motifs in the Qumran Hodayot' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: In this paper I will address the question of how biblical creation motifs have been employed in the hymnic literature of Qumran, with particular attention given to the Hodayot (1QH and 4QH fragments). Since Gunkel's work a great deal of attention has been given to the questions of (1) the relationship between biblical and Ancient Near Eastern creation traditions and (2) how biblical creation imagery functioned in the life and faith of Israel. In the Second Temple Period a dramatic shift occurred in the tradition-history of biblical creation imagery, yet little work has been done to trace the changes which took place. Significant examples of this tradition-historical shift are found in the Qumran Hodayot. For instance, the chthonic theme of creation through the irrigation of dry land (used in Genesis 2: 4-25 to depict the making of the primal paradise) is used by the hymnist of 1QH 8.4f. to describe his role as the medium of the divine revelation to the Qumran community (cf. 1QH 8. 4-5 w/Gen 2:8-10). Similarly, the motif of the creation of humanity by fashioning a man out of dust or clay (characteristic of the Mesopotamian Eridu narrative tradition and adopted into Genesis 2:7) is employed throughout the Hodayot to characterize humanity's inherent frailty and sinfulness (cf. 1QH 1.21; 18.31 w/Gen 2:7). Furthermore, the theme of God placing luminaries in the sky to illumine the darkness (used in Genesis 1 to describe the cosmic inauguration of Israel's Heilsgeschichte ) is employed by the hymnist of 1QH 9 to describe his own divine deliverance from the oppression of his enemies (cf. 1QH 9.26-27 w/Gen 1:14-17). This paper will focus on these and other relevant Hodayot passages in order to (1) determine which biblical creation motifs the hymnist of the Hodayot drew upon and (2) discern how the form and function of those motifs were changed in order to serve the hymnists' contemporary religious expression.]

Dajani, Awni

Dalman, Gustav

Danielou, Cardinal Jean

Davidson, M. J.

Davies, P.

  • "Communities in the Qumran Scrolls", PIBA 17 (1994) 55-68.

Davies, Philip R.

  • Qumran (Guilford, 1982).
  • 'How Not to Do Archaeology. The Story of Qumran', BA Dec. (1988) 203-207.
  • 'Sadducees in the Dead Sea Scrolls?', in Qumran Cave Four--Special Report, Z. J. Kapera (ed.) (Cracow, 1991) 85-94.
  • "The Prehistory of the Qumran Community" in The Dead Sea Scrolls. Forty Years of Research, D. Dimant and U. Rappaport (eds.) (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1992) 116-125.

Davies, W. D.

  • Cambridge History of Judaism, Vol. 2: The Hellenistic Age, ____ and L. Finkelstein (eds.) (Cambridge, 1989).

Davila, J. R.

Dayan, Moshe

Deines, R.

  • "Die Abwehr der Fremden in den Texten aus Qumran. Zum Verständnis der Fremdenfeindlichkeit in der Qumrangemeinde" in Die Heiden (1994) 59-91.

de Vaux, Father Roland
see Vaux, Père (Father) Roland de

Delcor, M.

  • 'Cinq nouveaux psaumes esséniennes?', RQ 1, no. 1 (1958) 85-102.
  • Les hymnes de Qumrán (hodayot) (Paris, 1962).

Del Medico, Henri E.

  • L'Enigme des manuscrits de la Mer Morte (Paris, 1957).
  • Le Myghe des Esséniens (Paris, 1958).

Dewey, A.

Dexinger, F.

Di Lella, A. A.

  • "Qumran and the Geniza Fragments of Sirach", CBQ 24 (1962) 245-267.

Dimant, Devorah

  • 'Qumran Sectarian Literature', Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period, Michael Stone (ed.) (Philadelphia, 1984), 483-550.
  • see Strugnell, John (1988).
  • 'The Merkabah Vision in Second Ezekial (4Q385 4)', RQ 14 (1990) 331-348.
  • 'New Light from Qumran on the Jewish Pseudepigrapha - 4Q390', STJD 11 (1991)
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls: Forty Years of Research, ____ and U. Rappaport, eds., (Leiden: E. J. Brill and Jerusalem: Magnes, 1992).
  • "A Synoptic Comparison of Parallel Sections in 4Q427 7, 4Q491 11, and 4Q471B", JQR 85 (1994-95) 157-161.
  • Time to Prepare the Way in the Wildeness: Papers on the Dead Sea Scrolls, ____ and L. H. Schiffman (eds.) (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1995).
  • 'The Qumran Library: Its Content and Character' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The study of the Qumran documents is going through a genuine metamorphosis. The old picture which dominated the scene for over thirty years, that of a sectarian library, owned by a small separatist community, is being replaced by the much wider perspective of a rich collection of literary documents, which belonged to a main current in Second Temple Judaism. Such a picture emerges from the constant flow of new publications, and from the complete list of the Qumran manuscripts put now at the disposal of scholars. Besides some 230 biblical manuscripts the library contained nearly 190 manuscripts of sectarian works, and around 240 manuscripts of other compositions which do not contain terminology and ideas typical of the Qumran community. It is this elusive group which has produced most of the surprises. It contains many apocryphal and pseudepigraphic works, some of which were previously known (such as Tobit, 1 Enoch, Jubilees), but many were not. In addition, a number of exegetical compositions, expanding and interpreting the Bible in various ways also came into light. They provide a link between the exegesis found in the late biblical books (such as Chronicles, Ezra-Nehemiah) and that of the later rabbinic midrashim. No less intriguing is the group of Aramaic texts, mostly dealing with haggadic stories about biblical patriarchs. All these documents open new vistas on ancient post-biblical Judaism and on the background and origin of first century Christianity.]

Doering, Lutz

  • 'Purity Regulations concerning the Sabbath in the Dead Sea Scrolls' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: In the Dead Sea Scrolls there is a series of purity regulations applying to the sanctification of the Sabbath, such as an obligatory ritual purification before the onset of the Sabbath, a prohibition of wearing filthy clothes, and an interdict of intermingling voluntarily on the Sabbath. Similar concerns are indicated by the prohibition of sexual intercourse on the Sabbath according to the Book of Jubilees, a practice obviously also observed by the early Hasidim. A Sabbath limit of normally 1000 cubits according to the Damascus Document would make it impossible to visit the place of the hand in order to relieve oneself
      on the Sabbath, the latter being situated at a distance of 2000 cubits (thus the War Scroll) or even 3000 cubits (thus the Temple Scroll) from the settlement; a similar restriction is reflected in Josephus's account of the Essenes (War 2:147). Besides the questions of carrying the usual mattock, of digging and of covering the excrement on the Sabbath (which actually would not be necessary with regard to the toilet facility according to the Temple Scroll), this restriction may also have a bearing on ritual purity on the Sabbath. In the communication, the purity regulations concerning the Sabbath will be analyzed and be compared with pertinent prescriptions in rabbinic literature. It will be shown that ritual purity on the Sabbath, though not unknown in rabbinic halakha, is a special concern of the priestly halakha represented by the Dead Sea Scrolls and related literature.]

Dombrowski, B. W. W.

  • Ideological and Socio-Structural Developments of the Qumran Association as Suggested by the Internal Evidence of Dead Sea Scrolls: Part 1: Major Texts Mainly of Qumran Cave 1, CD and 4QMMT. Qumranica Mogilanensia. (Kraków: Enigma Press, 1994).

Donceel, Robert

  • "The Archaeology of Khirbit Qumran", ____ and Donceel-Voûte, Dr. Pauline H. E. in Methods of Investigation of the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Khirbet Qumran Site : Present Realities and Future Prospects (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences) Michael O. Wise, Norman Golb, et al (eds.) (1994) 1-38.

Donceel-Voûte, Dr. Pauline H. E.

  • '"Coenaculum" - La salle à l'étage du Locus 30 à Khirbet Qumrân sur la mer Morte', Banquets de l'Orient Res Orientales 4 (1992) 61-84.
  • See Donceel, Robert (1994).

Donfried, Karl P.

  • 'Paul and the Community of the Renewed Covenant: Convergence and Divergence' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Paul identified himself as a Pharisee. What kind of a Pharisee was he; what does he mean by using this self-descriptor and how is it that at a number of key points in 1 Thessalonians, his earliest letter, striking similarities to the thought of the community(s) reflected in foundational documents of the Dead Sea Scrolls (henceforth: yahad) occur both conceptually and linguistically? If Paul is effected by this stream of thought within the pluralism of Second Temple Judaism, can one locate more precisely the point(s) of contact or association? Are the specific terminology and the broader conceptual similarities between the two mediated through earliest Christianity or was the pre-Christian Paul already influenced by the prophetic movement of the yahad?
      In addition to certain eschatological/apocalyptic similarities, other convergent patterns are reflected in the themes of election and the calling of God, holiness/sanctification, the light/day/night/darkness contrasts and the wrath/salvation dualism. Also, closer examination of the exhortation, 1 Thess 5:12-22, may indicate further influence of yahad language and thought.
      For Paul justification is one way to articulate the controlling conception of election. Once this is recognized, then it is necessary to examine in detail the relationship between Paul and the yahad not only in terms of their shared use of the concept of election/predestination, but also such other interconnected, but at times divergent, concepts as sin, works of the law (4QMMT) and salvation.
      At critical points it is, both positively and negatively, the influence of yahad, rather than the Pharisaic-rabbinic tradition that is determinative in shaping Paul's pre-Christian Judaism. Does Paul's contact with the yahad Community of the Renewed Covenant facilitate his own dissent from the brand of Pharisaic Judaism that had shaped his own spirituality? Does this tension within Judaism predispose him toward the Jesus movement and its proposed solution to the very issues that had been and were still central to Paul's own religious reflection?]

Dorner, G. R.

Driver, Sir Godfrey Rolles

  • The Judaean Scrolls. The Problem and a Solution (Oxford, 1965).
  • 'Myths of Qumran', ALUOS 6 (1966-68) 23-40.
  • 'Mythology of Qumran', JQR 71 (1970) 241-281.

Drori, Amir

Duchesne-Guillemin, J.

Duhaime, Jean

  • 'Recent Studies on Messianism in the Dead Sea Scrolls' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The synthetic view of Qumran messianism elaborated by J. Starky in 1963 has remained the standard a few decades. However, the release of all available texts from Qumran in the early 1990s has prompted new studies which raise important theoretical and methodological problems. This paper will explore some of them by comparing the aims and methods of a few recent studies of messianic texts from Qumran. Attention will be paid to various decisions made by the researchers on the following questions:
      Is the study limited to those texts which display a messianic vocabulary (e.g. MSYH), or to those in which a messianic "concept" is found?
      Is the study limited to texts found at Qumran, to "sectarian" texts, etc.?
      How are fragmentary texts dealt with?
      Among the studies to be reviewed are: F. García Martínez, "Messianische Erwartungen in den Qumranschriften", JBTh (1993) 171-208; J. VanderKam, "Messianism in the Scrolls", in E. Ulrich, J. Vanderkam (eds.), The Community of the Renewed Covenant , Notre Dame Univ., 1994, 211-234; E. Puech, "Messianism, Resurrection, and Eschatology at Qumran and in the New Testament", Ibidem, 235-256; J.J. Collins, The Scepter and the Star. The Messiahs of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Other Ancient Jewish Literature, New York, Doubleday, 1995. I will also pay attention to a few studies that seem promising either to better understand the general context of Qumran messianism (W.M. Schniedewind, "King and Priest in the Book of Chronicle and the Duality of Qumran Messianism", JSJ 45 [1994] pp. 71- 78) or to analyze it from a social scientific standpoint (L. Schiffman, "Messianic Figures and Ideas in the Qumran Scrolls", in J.H. Charlesworth [ed.], The Messiahs . Developments in Earliest Judaism and Christianity , Minneapolis, Fortress, 1992, 116-129). I will also attempt to set my own agenda for a study of Qumran messianism as part of a larger social scientific study of the Qumran community/communities.]

Duncan, J.

Dupont-Sommer, André

  • The Essene Writings from Qumran (Oxford, 1961).
  • Essene Writings from Qumran (Peter Smith Pub, June 1973).
  • Les Ecrits esséniens découverts près de la Mer Morte (Paris, 1983)
  • La Bible. Ecrits intertestamentaires ____ and M. Philonenko (eds.) (Paris, 1987).

Dyson, F.

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Eisenman, Robert H.

  • Islamic law in Palestine and Israel : a history of the survival of Tanzimat and Sharåi'a in the British Mandate and the Jewish state (????).
  • Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran (Leiden, 1983).
  • James the Just in the Habakkuk Pesher (Leiden, 1986).
  • 'The Historical Provenance of the "Three Nests of Belial" Allusion in the Zadokite Document and Balla/Bela in the Temple Scroll', Folia orientalia, vol.xxv (1988), pp.51ff.
  • 'Eschatological "rain" Imagery in the War Scroll from Qumran and in the Letter from James', JNES, 49, no.2 (April 1990).
  • 'Interpreting "Albeit-Galuto" in the Habakkuk Pesher', Folia orientalia, vol.xxvii (1990).
  • 'A Response to Schiffman on MMT', The Qumran Chronicle 2-3 (Cracow, 1991) 94-104.
  • A Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea Scrolls: with an introduction and index by ____ and J. M. Robinson, 2 vols., (ER; Washington D. C.: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1991). [Introduction in English, facsimiles primarily in Hebrew and Aramaic].
  • 'The Testament of Kohath', BAR Nov/Dec (1991) 64.
  • 'A Messianic Vision', BAR Nov/Dec (1991) 65ff.
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls Uncovered. ____ and Michael O. Wise, (Shaftsbury, U.K. and Rockport, Mass., 1992), pbk. ed. (New York: Penguin, 1993). [The First Complete Translation and Interpretation of 50 Key Documents Withheld for Over 35 Years].
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls and the First Christians : Essays and Translations (1996).
  • James the Brother of Jesus : The Key to Unlocking the Secrets of Early Christianity and the Dead Sea Scrolls (1997).
  • James the Brother of Jesus : Recovering the True History of Early Christianity (Not Yet Published)

Eissfeldt, Otto

Elgvin, Torleif

  • 'Wisdom and Apocalypticism in the Early Second Century BCE: The Evidence of 4QInstruction' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: 4QInstruction preserves the largest amount of material among the wisdom writings from Qumran. Form-critical analysis shows the presence of two literary layers in the book: an older stratum of concise wisdom admonitions, and another, more apocalyptic stratum consisting of longer discourses.
      The wisdom admonitions mediate knowledge based on reason, similar to Sirach and Proverbs. The argument is based on this life, not on the hereafter. The admonitions provide guidance for life in family (relations to parents, wife and children) and society (financial matters such as loans, surety and investments; relations to superiors and subordinates, and agricultural topics).
      By the mid-second century BCE the book grows: to the admonitions is added a second, apocalyptic, stratum, dependent upon the Enochic tradition and close to the yahad in its world-view. This apocalyptic author moves the perspective to divine mysteries and the end-time restoration of the righteous. He looks forward to the universal judgment in heaven and on earth: angelic powers above and wicked men here below will be judged at God's final intervention. As authority and guiding star for the life of the elect the author does not appeal to the Torah, but to raz nihyeh , the mystery to come, a comprehensive word for God's plan for creation, history and redemption. For this author, God's agent at creation is not 'Lady Wisdom', but raz nihyeh . The divine mysteries have now been revealed to a community described as God's 'eternal planting', the nucleus of the future restored Israel.
      The presence of seven copies in Caves 1 and 4 shows that this book was highly regarded in the yahad . We deal with an important source for the development of sectarian theology.]

Elior, R.

Elliger, K.

Elson, John

Eshel, Esther

  • 'A scroll from Qumran which Includes Part of Psalm 154 and a Prayer for King Jonathan and his Kingdom', --, Hanan Eshel, and Ada Yardeni, Tarbiz 60 (1991) 296-327 [Hebrew].
  • 'Recensions and Editions of the War Scroll' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: 1QM is a compound composition which was based on different sources. That can be shown by the fact that the same hymn is found twice in 1QM. In the sixties and the seventies different scholars tried to demonstrate how the scribe who composed 1QM had worked.
      On this subject one should mention the pioneer work done by three scholars (M.H. Segal, C. Rabin and J.M. Grintz) who published three different articles in the Sukenik volume, published by the Shrine of the Book in 1961; as well as P.R. Davies' book, which appeared in Rome in 1977.
      This topic was later neglected because scholars waited for all the 4Q fragments to be published. Now that DJD VII and 4Q471, which is one of the sources of the War scroll are published, it seems to be the appropriate time for reevaluating the question of the sources of 1QM.
      In my lecture I would like to deal with two examples which can demonstrate this problem:
      1. There are three different recensions of one hymn: the shortest is found in 4QMb (4Q492), the second in 1QM column XIX:5-8 and the longest version is included in column XII:12-15 of 1QM. I would like to show that this hymn was enlarged and therefore the shortest recension is the earlier one.
      2. Column 2 of 1QM resembles 4Q471 fragment 1. Recently M. Abegg tried to connect 4Q471 with the Temple Scroll. In my lecture I would like to demonstrate how although there are some common elements shared by the Temple Scroll and the War Scroll, 4Q471 is the source of 1QM and not of the Temple Scroll.]

Eshel, Hanan

  • see Eshel, Esther (1991).
  • 'Caves and Documents from the Bar Kokhba Period' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Between 1947 and 1956 twelve hundred documents were found in the Judean Desert. The earliest document is a papyrus from the end of the First Temple period (seventh century BCE) found in Wadi Murabba'at. The latest ones are from the early Arabic period, found in Khirbet Mird and in Wadi Murabba'at.
      After 1965 there was a long gap in finding new documents. Not only that scholars did not find written documents in the Judean Desert, but no documents arrived in the antiquity market as well.
      In 1986 I found in a small cave west of Jericho one document from the fourth century BCE, and five from the Bar Kokhba period. In 1993, under the same cave I found a group of documents from the Bar Kokhba period. In my lecture I will discuss these finds.
      One can divide the documents found in the Judean Desert (other than Qumran) into three groups:
      1. Document from the fourth century BCE from Wadi ed-Daliyeh and Ketef Jericho;
      2. Documents from the first century CE, found in Masada and Wadi Murabba'at;
      3. The largest group include documents which were brought to different caves in the Judean Desert at the end of the Bar Kokhba Revolt (135 CE).
      The last group will be discussed in my lecture. Today we know of 26 caves which were used as refuge caves at the end of the Bar Kokhba Revolt. In eleven of them documents were found. In my lecture I will try to show a pattern that can explain why those specific caves were chosen as refuge caves and what was the origin of the people who found shelter in those caves.]

Evans, Craig A.

  • 'Diarchic Messianism in the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Messianism of Jesus of Nazareth' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The diarchic messianism evidently presupposed by some of the Dead Sea Scrolls may clarify Jesus' entry into Jerusalem, his demonstration in the Temple precincts, and the ensuing quarrel with the ruling priests. Some of the Scrolls seem to expect the appearance of two anointed individuals, one of Aaron and one of Israel. Many scholars think the first anointed person is the new High Priest, while the second anointed person is the new king of davidic descent.
      While New Testament christology and its subsequent interpretation in the church of the second through fourth centuries tended to fuse all messianic ideas into one unified complex, whereby Messiah Jesus became king, priest, and prophet, messianic expectation of Jesus' time probably envisioned two messianic figures, perhaps preceded by a great prophet. The messianic expectation of the Scrolls probably reflect this view and are not therefore particularly distinctive. Indeed, the expectation of the Scrolls seems pretty much the same as that found in the Hebrew Bible.
      Although New Testament scholars typically sift through the Scrolls to find items here and there that potentially shed light on New Testament themes and passages, I propose to review the messianism of Jesus to see what light his teachings and activities may shed on the messianism of the Scrolls. His controversial relationship with Jerusalem's priesthood may clarify certain aspects of the debate relating to the putative messianic diarchism evidenced by the Scrolls.]

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Fabry, Heinz-Josef

  • 'The Reception of the Book of Leviticus in Qumran' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: In Qumran there exist 18 scrolls with Leviticus texts (incl. 3 RP-scrolls). Additionally, the importance of the Book of Leviticus in Qumran is emphasized by the existence of more than 80 quotations. Two copies in 11Q and several copies in palaeo-Hebrew handwriting show canonical dignity. The distribution of the quotations demonstrates that the book of Leviticus as a whole was well known in Qumran, but special attention was given to Lev 2-5 (sacrifices and offerings), Lev 10-11 (purity /impurity) and parts of the Code of Holiness. On the other hand the wide-spread RP-texts are significant in excluding main parts of the book (Lev 1-10; 14; 17 and 21s.), while now preponderance is given to the purity laws (Lev 11-13). The Temple Scroll (nearly 50 quotations) points out the lasting importance of the priestly laws for the Sanctuary Torah.
      Unexpectedly the people of 1QS did not know what to make of the book, while the community of CD accepted at least the laws of leprosy (Lev 13) and of social behavior (Lev 19). The important quotations of Leviticus laws in 4QMMT and Toharot need special attention.
      With regard to textual criticism of the Hebrew Bible the Leviticus scrolls show special affinities to pre-masoretic and pre-septuagintic textual traditions, but, after all, the extremely careful and precise reception of the texts evidences what we call "canonical dignity".]

Falk, Daniel

  • 'Reconstructing Prayer-Texts from DJD 7' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The prayers published by M. Baillet in DJD 7 were for the most part extremely fragmentary and his attempts at reconstruction were only partly successful. This paper proposes several new reconstructions relevant to the texts 4Q503-509.]

Farmer, W. R.

Festinger, L.

Fitzmyer, Joseph A.

  • 'A Feature of Qumran Angelology and the Angels of I Cor. 11.10', NTS 4 (1957-58) 48-58.
  • The Biblical Commission's document "The interpretation of the Bible in the Church" : text and commentary
  • The Genesis Apocryphon of Qumran Cave 1 (Rome, 1971).
  • 'The Contribution of Qumran Aramaic to the Study of the New Testament', NTS 20 (1974) 391-394.
  • Essays on the Semitic Background of the New Testament (1974).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls: Major Publications and Tools for Study (Missoula: Scholars Press, 1975).
  • Introductory Bibliography for the Study of Scripture Vol 3 (1981).
  • To Advance the Gospel : New Testament Essays (1981).
  • The Gospel According to Luke, I-IX Vol 28 (1981).
  • Wandering Aramean : Collected Aramaic Essays (Society of Biblical Literature Monograph, No 25) (1984).
  • Gospel According to Luke X-XXIV (Anchor Bible, Vol 28A) (1985).
  • Scripture and Christology : A Statement of the Biblical Commission With a Commentary (1986).
  • Paul and His Theology : A Brief Sketch (1989).
  • Luke the Theologian : Aspects of His Teaching (1989).
  • The New Jerome Biblical Commentary Raymond E. Brown, ____, et al (1990).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls : Major Publications and Tools for Study (Society of Biblical Literature Resources for Biblical Study, no. 20), rev. ed. (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1990).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls : Major Publications and Tools for Study (Resources for Biblical Study, No 20) (1990).
  • An Introductory Bibliography for the Study of Scripture (1990).
  • A Christological Catechism : New Testament Answers (1991).
  • New Jerome Bible Handbook Raymond Brown, ____, et al (1992).
  • >Responses to 101 Questions on the Dead Sea Scrolls(New York: Paulist Press,1992).
  • An Aramaic Bibliography : Part I : Old, Official, and Biblical Aramaic
    ____, Stephen A. Kaufman (1992).
  • Responses to 101 Questions on the Dead Sea Scrolls (New York: Paulist Press, 1992).
  • 'Scroll Origins: An Exchange on the Qumran Hypothesis', Christian Century (24 March 1993) 326-332.
  • According to Paul : Studies in the Theology of the Apostle (1993).
  • Romans : A New Translation With Introduction and Commentary (The Anchor Bible, Vol 33) ____ (ed.) (1993).
  • Scripture, the Soul of Theology (1994).
  • Spiritual Exercises Based on Paul's Epistle to the Romans (1995).
  • Qumran Cave 4 : Parabiblical Texts (DJD XIX) Vol 14 Magen Broshi, ____, et al (1996).
  • Essays on the Semitic Background of the New Testament : A Wandering Aramean : Collected Aramaic Essays (The Biblical Resource Series) (1997).
  • 'The Significance of the Hebrew and Aramaic Texts of Tobit from Qumran' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The four Aramaic texts of Tobit from Qumran Cave 4 and the one Hebrew text raise the question about the language in which the book was originally written. A case will be made for the composition in Aramaic. These texts, both Aramaic and Hebrew, reveal that the Book of Tobit contained originally all 14 chapters, and so they put an end to the controversy about chaps. 13 and 14, as well as their date and the date of the book as a whole. The Hadrianic date of Tobit is now ruled out. The main problem for future study of Tobit is the relation of the Aramaic and Hebrew texts to the Greek versions (Sinaiticus and others), the Latin versions (Vetus Latina and Vulgate), and other versions (especially the Syriac).]

Flusser, David

  • Judaism and the Origins of Christianity (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1988).
  • The Spiritual History of the Dead Sea Sect (Tel-Aviv: MOD Books, 1989).

Freedman, David Noel

  • see Cross, Frank Moore, Jr. (1952).
  • New Directions in Biblical Archaeology, ____ and J. C. Greenfield (eds.) (Garden City, 1971).
  • The Paleo-Hebrew Leviticus Scroll (11QpaleoLev), ____ and K. A. Mathews, eds., with a contribution by R. S. Hanson (Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns for the American School of Oriental Research, 1985).
  • see Freedman, David Noe (1985).

Frehlick, Ida

  • 'The Theme of the Land in Qumran' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Promising the land of Canaan to the Patriarchs and occupying it by their descendants is a major theme of the narratives in Hexateuch. Particular laws of the Leviticus (Holiness Code), Numbers, and Deuteronomy reflect an idea of the holiness of the land: the violation of taboos concerning sexual relations ('zenut'), blood, the dead, mixing, and magic result in defiling the land and its inhabitants being wiped out of it.
      Qumran literature shows apparently meager evidence of the theme of the land. However, the idea of entering the land is a fundamental idea of some basic works. The Damascus Document, using plant imagery, speaks of the members of the 'new covenant' as of a group returning from the exile and entering the promised land: "in the 'age of wrath' God caused to grow forth Israel and Aron a plant root to possess his land (CD I. 7-8)." The audience of the Rule of the Community (1QS) is considered as the rest of Israel resettling in the land. Israel, the addressee of the Temple Scroll is a holy group entering the land in order to inherit it, under condition of considering the laws concerning the holiness of the land.
      Entering and occupying the land is the theme of several recently edited texts of Cave 4 (4Q371-72; 374; 4Q378; 4Q522). Other texts like the Genesis Apocryphon, 4Q252, the historical survey of the Damascus Document (CD II.14-III.7) - all of them discontinuous narratives written with exegetical purposes - retell stories from the antediluvian and patriarchal tradition, apparently without any dependence upon the theme of the land. However, they reflect a deep awareness of the tradition of the holiness of the land and the danger of defiling it. Taking a view on the human history according to the biblical tradition they set examples of the righteous and the sinner: the sinner whose sins result in defiling and losing the land, and the righteous, who enter the land and inherit it.]

Freund, Richard A.

  • 'A New Interpretation of the Incense Shovels from the "Cave of the Letters"' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: In 1961, Y. Yadin discovered a hoard of vessels in the Judean desert in a place known today as the "Cave of Letters". Yadin speculated that the hoard containing incense shovels together with elaborately designed patera and 16 other vessels, were taken as booty from a Roman military camp situated almost above the cave. The incense shovels are today displayed in the Shrine of the Book and command some attention both by the public and scholars, despite inevitable questions which relate to their meaning in the general context of the Scrolls and the Letters. It was Yadin's impression that the incense shovels were not in their original archaeological context, but were part of the booty taken by Bar Kokhba's troops. He states rather ambiguously that they were taken from: "...the units of the Roman Legions or the Auxilia, which carried them about for ritual purposes." He was not sure what the "ritual purposes" were, but he, like other writers of the period, assigned them to some ambiguous "pagan" ritual. Yadin did not apparently consider why such a rich hoard of ritual objects would be located in a military camp nor did he attempt to associate them with a specific "pagan" cult.
      Since the 1970s much new work has been done both in archaeology and the study of religions in Palestine in this period which add new insights into our understanding of these artifacts and perhaps lend a new interpretation to their presence. The recent discovery at Bethsaida in the Golan of another incense shovel which is extremely similar to one of those found in the hoard of the "Cave of Letters" in a full archaeological context has prompted a much overdue re-examination of the subject of incense shovels found in archaeological contexts in general and the incense shovels of the "Cave of Letters" in particular. This paper will report on these new insights and interpretation.]

Frey, Joerg

  • 'The New Jerusalem Text from the Qumran Library in Context' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The Aramaic composition describing the "New Jerusalem" is one of the most interesting Qumran texts. However, it has not enjoyed much scholarly interest up till now. Although the six preserved manuscripts are rather late copies, the composition seems to be of an earlier origin and probably non-sectarian. This is suggested by its language and by its content which has no specific sectarian elements.
      The paper will take an attempt to understand the description of the eschatological Jerusalem in its historical and traditio-historical context: It will provide a general comparison of the town plan in this composition with the plan of contemporary Jerusalem and with the plans of other cities in the Greco-Roman world. Then the outlines of the description of the town and its temple will be located within the tradition of similar descriptions from Ezekiel down to the Johannine Apocalypse.]

Friedrich, G.

Fritsch, C. T.

  • The Qumran Community: Its History and its Scrolls (New York, 1956).
  • The Book of Genesis (The Layman's Bible Commentary) Vol 2 (1959).
  • The Qumran Community : Its History and Scrolls (1973).

Fujita, N. S.

  • A Crack in the Jar: What Ancient Jewish Documents Tell Us about the New Testament (New York, 1986).

Fuller, Russell G.
  • 'Thoughts on the Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible and the Production of a New Critical Edition of the Hebrew Text' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: With the recent publication of the majority of biblical manuscripts from Qumran, especially Cave 4, textual critics of the Hebrew Bible may well be in a position which has never existed in the discipline. After fifty years of modern editorial activity by a small army of scholars the vast majority of Hebrew biblical manuscripts are now available to scholars. Textual critics are now in a position to make use of that easily accessible material.
      For the Twelve Minor Prophets there is also the important Greek manuscript from the Nahal Hever in addition to seven Hebrew biblical manuscripts and numerous commentaries. Volume 15 of DJD, devoted to the prophets material, is now available. There are three projects currently underway which attempt to either utilize this material for textual criticism or to make the readings of these manuscripts even more accessible to scholars: The Biblia Hebraica Quinta, the Biblia Qumranica, and the hand-edition of the manuscripts to be published by Oxford.
      Yet only the Biblia Hebraica Quinta makes use of these materials in order to produce a critical edition of the Hebrew Text. As is well known, the BHQ as also the HUBP is a diplomatic edition. This paper argues for the creation of a new critical (eclectic) edition of the Hebrew Bible utilizing all of the available textual evidence to "produce a text as close as possible to the original." With the availability of the biblical manuscripts from Qumran, the improved understanding of the history of the Greek and Hebrew texts, and the advances in study of the ancient versions, the time has come for textual critics to produce the first eclectic critical edition of the Hebrew Bible. A sample based on the text of the Book of Malachi will be given with the paper.

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García Martínez, Florentino

  • 'A "Groningen Hypothesis" of Qumran Origins and Early History', RQ 14, no. 56 (April 1960) 521-541.
  • 'Qumran Origins and Early History: A Groningen Hypothesis', Folia Orientalia 25 (1988) 113-136.
  • The Texts of Qumran and the History of the Community. Vol III ____ (ed.) (Paris, 1990).
  • 'A "Groningen" Hypothesis of Qumran Origins and Early History', ____ and A. S. van der Woude, The Texts of Qumran and the History of the Community. Vol III F. García Martínez (ed.) (Paris, 1990) 521-554.
  • Qumran and Apocalyptic. Studies on the Aramaic Texts of Qumran (STDJ 9; Leiden, 1992).
  • The Scriptures and the Scrolls : Studies in Honour of A.S. Van Der Woude on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday (Supplements to Vetus Testamentum, Vol), ____, et al (1992).
  • Qumran and Apocalyptic : Studies on the Aramaic Text from Qumran (Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah, Vol. 9) (1992).
  • Sacred History and Sacred Texts in Early Judaism : A Symposium in Honour of A.S. Van Der Woude (Contributions to Biblical Exegesis & Theology, No 5), J. N. Bremmer, ____ (eds.) (1993).
  • Water Supply Systems : State of the Art and Future Trends, E. Cabrera, ____ (eds.) (1993).
  • Studies in Deuteronomy : In Honour of C.J. Labuschagne on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday (Supplements to Vetus Testamentum, Vol 53), ____, et al (1994).
  • The People of the Dead Sea Scrolls, ____, et al (1995).
  • A Classified Bibliography of the Finds in the Desert of Judah, 1970-1995 (Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah ; No. 19), ____, Donald W. Parry (1996).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts in English, 2nd ed., trans. Wilfred G. E. Watson (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1994) (2nd ed. with corr. and add.; Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1996) (ppb. ed.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1996).
  • 'The Temple Scroll and the New Jerusalem' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The research on the biblical scrolls from Qumran has already proved the advantages of the hermeneutic model of multiple literary editions to solve the complex problems posed by the presence in the library of Qumran of the different texts of several biblical books, and has helped to understand the process of growth and standardization of the biblical text. This hermeneutic model could be equally useful to solve the problems posed by different forms of non-biblical or clearly sectarian compositions. This model is particularly promising for the study of compositions attested in widely different forms in different manuscripts, such as the Hodayot , the War Scroll , the Rule of the Community , or even the Damascus Document , but it could be equally useful to solve the problems posed by other compositions also attested in several copies.
      The paper will examine all the manuscripts which are witnesses of, or are related to, the Temple Scroll and the New Jerusalem . The Temple Scroll is known in three copies (4Q524, 11Q19, and 11Q20) and two other manuscripts have been tentatively assigned as possible copies of the same composition (4Q365a and 11Q21). The New Jerusalem is attested in six copies (1Q32, 2Q24, 4Q554, 4Q555, 5Q15, and 11Q18). And of both compositions (11QTemple and 11QNJ) it has been asserted that we have recovered at least two different redactions.
      This paper will critically examine the reasons put forth to justify the designation of 4Q365a and of 11Q21 as Temple Scroll , as well as the reasons which have lead to postulate different redactions for the Temple Scroll and for the New Jerusalem , and will ascertain if the hermeneutic model of "multiple editions" can be of any help to solve the problems of these compositions.]

Gardner, James

Gaster, Theodore H.

  • The Dead Sea Scriptures in English Translation (Garden City, N.Y., 1956).

Gaventa, Beverly

Georgi, Dieter

Geraty, L. T.

Gilbert, Father Pierre

Ginzberg, H. Louis

  • An Unknown Jewish Sect (New York, 1976).

Glickler-Chazon, E.

Gmirkin, Russell
  • 'The War Scroll, the Boycott of the Temple, and the Maccabean Conflict' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Identification of the War Scroll as the military manual of the Maccabean army points to its authors at the Hasidim, the militant defenders of mainstream Judaism during the Hellenistic crisis. This in turn suggests that the "sectarian" boycott of the temple in the scrolls reflects the historical boycott of the Hellenized temple cult by the Hasidim ca. 170-164 BCE. Drawing on the War Scroll and the Animal Apocalypse, three distinct phases in the history of the Hasidim can be detected. The Hasidim arose in the period ca. 200-170 BCE as a reform party in Jerusalem opposed to the Hellenists. The first recension of Jubilees, both pro-temple and anti-Hellenist, reflects this early phase.
      The murder of the Hasidim leader Onias III in 170 BCE signaled the start of a new phase, the Era of the Dominion of Belial (or Wicked Era), when the Hasidim boycotted Jerusalem and her temple and engaged in active military opposition to the Hellenists. "Sectarian" documents such as the Damascus Document and Community Rule envisioning the faithful of the covenant living in wilderness military camps and boycotting the temple reflect the historical realities of this period. The cleansing of the temple in the land sabbath year 164/163 BCE, alluded to in 1QM 1-2 (along with Maccabean military victories of that same year), signaled an official return to the temple and Jerusalem. The final redaction of the War Scroll belongs to this phase.
      In summary, the boycott of the temple, previously considered a defining characteristic of the Dead Sea Scrolls "sect," may instead reflect the relatively brief opposition to the Hellenists by mainstream Judaism during the Maccabean conflict, and the scrolls may consist in large part of the revered literature of the Hasidim.]

Gnilka, J.

Golb, Norman

  • 'The Problem of Origin and Identification of the Dead Sea Scrolls', PAPS 124 (1980) 1-24.
  • Khazarian Hebrew Documents of the Tenth Century (1982).
  • 'Les Manuscrits de la mer Morte--une nouvelle approche du problème de leur origine', Annales--Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations 40, no. 5 (1985) 1133-1149.
  • 'Who Hid the Dead Sea Scrolls?', BA 48 (1985) 68-82.
  • 'Les Manuscrits de la Mer Morte: Une nouvelle approche du probleme de leur origine', Annales--Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations 40 (1987) 1133-1149.
  • 'Réponse à la Note de É.-M. Laperrousaz', Annales--Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations l42, no. 6 (1987) 1313-1320.
  • 'Who Wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls?', The Sciences 27 (1987) 40-49.
  • 'The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Perspective', The American Scholar 58, no. 2 (Spring 1989) 177-207.
  • 'The Dead Sea Scrolls: An Exchange (Response to John Trever)', The American Scholar 58, no. 4 (Autumn 1989) 628-632.
  • 'Khirbet Qumran and the Manuscripts of the Judaean Wilderness: Observations on the Logic of Their Investigation', JNES 49 (1990) 103-114.
  • 'The Qumran-Essene Hypothesis: a Fiction of Scholarship', Christian Century 109, no. 36 (9 Dec. 1992) 1138-1143.
  • 'The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Ethics of Museology', Aspen Institute Quarterly, Wise, Michael O. (ed.) 6, no. 2 (Spring 1994) 79-98. (1994).
  • Methods of Investigation of the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Khirbet Qumran Site : Present Realities and Future Prospects (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences) Michael O. Wise, ____ , et al (1994).
  • Who Wrote the Dead Scrolls? The Search for the Secret of Qumran (New York: Touchstone, 1995).
  • The Jews in Medieval Normandy : A Social and Intellectual History (1997).
  • 'Recent Arguments in Defense of the Qumran-Essene Theory of Scroll Origins' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: During the past few years, several arguments and claims have been presented whose purpose has been to strengthen the theory that an Essenic or similar sect was established at Khirbet Qumran and either wrote or otherwise possessed the Dead Sea Scrolls. Some of these arguments and claims have been of an archaeological, and others of a textual and palaeographic nature. The paper analyzes the several proposals, focusing in particular on the claim that the term "Yahad" or "Layahad" appears in the ostracon discovered approximately one and a half years ago outside the walls of Khirbet Qumran.]

Gold, Leonard S.

Goodman, Martin D.

  • see Vermes, Geza (1989).

Goranson, Stephen

  • ""Essenes": Etymology from 'asah," RQ 11 (1984) 483-98.
  • "Further Qumran Archaeology Publications in Progress," BA 54 (1991) 110-11.
  • "Sectarianism, Geography, and the Copper Scroll," JJS 43 (1992) 282-7.
  • "Qumran: A Hub of Scribal Activity?" BAR 20/5 (Sept/Oct 1994) 36-8.
  • "Posidonius, Strabo, and Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa as Sources on Essenes," JJS 45 (1994) 295-8.
  • "The Exclusion of Ephraim in Rev. 7:4-8 and Essene Polemic Against Pharisees," DSD 2 (1995) 80-5.
  • "Essene Polemic in the Apocalypse of John" in Legal Texts, Legal Issues [Proceedings 2nd Mtg. Int. Org. for Qumran Studies; Joseph Baumgarten Festschrift] (Leiden, 1997) 453-60.

Gottesman, D. Samuel

Gottstein, M. H.

Gourovskaya, Kira N.
  • 'Qumran Documents and Revelation of John: Some Parallels and Possible Origin of a Tradition Used in Revelations' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Some textual parallels in Qumran documents to the Greek text of Revelation of John have been studied and results have been applied to the discovery of original meanings of symbols in Revelation.
      Considering parallels in the Commentaries on Habaqquq, Nahum and Micah to Rev 17 and 18, the symbol of "harlot" in Rev is suggested to be related to Jerusalem rather than Rome. It has been shown, that the "harlot" might be also associated with Jerusalem priesthood, an appropriate Qumran parallel being "the wicked priest" described in the Commentary on Habaqquq (1QpHab VIII, 8-13; IX, 3-7; XII, 6-9). Reasons for this interpretation include description of garments for priests in Exodus, which coincides with the description of priests' garments in the War Scroll (1QM VII, 9-11) and roughly corresponds to the description of the "harlot"'s dressing in Rev 17 (see J.M. Ford, Revelation, 1975).
      The Commentary on Habaqquq accuses "the wicked priest", who "committed deeds of abomination and defiled the Temple of God". This fragment reminds of the "abomination" in the "harlot"'s name in Rev 17:5, indicating a possible reference in Rev to the defilement of the Temple by Romans in I CE. The Commentary also speaks about destruction of Jerusalem and death of "the wicked priest" from the hands of "Kittim", who are most likely to be Romans of I BC. One can consider this Qumran tradition as one of possible sources of Revelation of John, used at appropriate events at the end of I CE.
      Among other parallels in Qumran Scrolls to the Revelation are fragments from the Commentary on Psalm 37 and Florilegia (4QFlor). This might indicate, that liturgical hymns cited in Revelation were similar to those used in Qumran community.]

Grayson, A. K.

Green, Denies
  • 'Emanuel Tov's Fifth Criterion for Determining the Provenance of Judean Desert Manuscripts: Accentuation Techniques for the Divine Name in Qumran and Rabbinic Literature.' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Emanuel Tov lists 5 criteria with which to establish sectarian provenance of a number of Judean Desert manuscripts. He claims that the accumulative force of these criteria is such that we can determine the origin even of small fragments.
      Tov considers criterion five to be dealing with the question of the writing of the Divine Name(s) in paleo-Hebrew script. However this scribal phenomenon is problematised by the diversity of both the number of proposed Divine Names and the number of different methods in which these names are differentiated from the rest of the text.
      We will suggest that Tov's description of the Halakhic ideology behind this scribal practice is flawed, and as a result this criterion cannot be used as evidence for concluding that a given document was penned by the "Qumran System" Scribal School. It is only when we correctly understand the Halakhic background of the practice that we can contextualise the practice. We agree with Tov that 'the Qumran scribal custom reflects the spirit of the rabbinic law,' but this is the very reason that this scribal practice, once correctly understood, cannot be used to establish provenance.]

Greenberg, M.

C. Greenblatt

  • see Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila (1997).

Greenfield, Jonas C.

  • see Freedman, David Noel (1971).
  • 'Astrological and Related Omen Texts in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic', JNES 48 (1989) 202.
  • see Lewis, Naphtali (1989).

Greenhut, Z.

Gressmann, H.

Griffiths, J. Gwyn

Gropp, Douglas M.
  • 'The Wadi Daliyeh Documents Compared to the Elephantine Documents' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Despite the fact that the Samaria papyri and the Elephantine legal papyri are drafted in virtually the same language (Official Aramaic), within the same general temporal horizon (the Persian period), and despite a number of striking similarities in their legal formulation, the formularies as a whole stem from fundamentally different legal traditions. The legal genres are only partly comparable between the two corpora. Most of the Samaria
      papyri are deeds of sale (especially of slaves), whereas deeds of outright sale are poorly represented at Elephantine. On the other hand, the interesting marriage contracts of Elephantine find no counterpart among the Samaria papyri. Comparison between the two corpora must be based on deeds of conveyance. The formulary for the Samaria papyri is considerably more fixed than that of the Elephantine deeds of conveyance, both in the phrasing of individual clauses and in the ordering of the clauses within the formulary.
      Important similarities include the overall structure of the deeds, orientation to the alienor, subjective formulation of at least some of the parts, a receipt-quittance clause, a defension clause in a few instances, and most strikingly in the function and distribution of (allit clauses. Both formularies evidence an extended symbiosis between Aramean and Akkadian scribes.
      But the two cases of symbiosis are parallel rather than homologous. The sale formulary of the Samaria papyri derives from Aramaic contacts with cuneiform models from the late Neo-Babylonian period of Darius I. The Elephantine schema of deeds of conveyance, on the other hand, has its closest contacts with a somewhat provincial Neo-Assyrian tradition, probably of the late ninth or early eighth century.]

Grossman, Ron

Grossouw, W.

Gruenwald, Ithamar

  • 'Patterns of Apocalyptic Ethos: The Case of Qumran' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Apocalypticism is generally described in terms of a movement, a literary genre, a religious trend. Its sectarian configurations are highlighted, too. It is considered a characteristic manifestation of groups that found themselves in political or religious stress, mostly in the Second Temple period. Recent studies have shown that Apocalypticism can be found in later periods, and to some extent even in the modern world, facing the turn of the millennium.
      The present paper will investigate further aspects of Apocalypticism that have hitherto received only cursory attention. The major perspective taken will be that of Religious Studies. The question will be asked: How should Apocalypticism be studied when taken as a subject of Religious Studies? This question has never before received proper methodological and disciplinary attention.
      In line with the above, the major feature that will receive attention will be that of Transformation. In the case of the Qumran writings, that have been characterized as apocalyptic, the aspects of Transformation both in a sectarian and a non-sectarian setting will receive due attention. The subjects that will come under discussion will be sub-sectioned in the framework of Substitution. Here matters regarding the social, cultic and ideological kinds of substitution will be discussed.
      One of the results of this kind of investigation will, it is hoped, draw attention to the presence of apocalyptic features even in non-apocalyptic writings. This kind of discussion strives at defining the "Apocalyptic Ethos" and its major culture-creating features.]

Guigrebert, Charles
  • The Jewish World in the Time of Jesus (New York: University Books, 1959).

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Haas, Nicu

  • 'Anthropological Survey of Human Skeletal Remains from Qumran', ____ and H. Nathan, RQ 6 (1968) 345-353.

Hachlili, Rachel

  • 'The Qumran Cemetery Reconsidered' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: This paper will reconsider the question of the Qumran cemetery, the burial customs and the identity of the interred.

      Comments on the following points will be discussed:
      1. The type and character of the Qumran tombs: organization, orientation and form.
      2. The Qumran wooden coffins.
      3. The number of graves.
      4. Some finds from the cemeteries.
      5. The question of the similar shaft tombs around Jerusalem.
      6. The Jewish burial practices at Qumran.]

Hanson, P.

Hanson, R. S.

  • see Freedman, David Noel (1985).
  • 'Khirbet Qumran and Wadi Murabba'at', PEQ 84 (1952) 104-109.

Harding, Gerald Lankester
  • An index and concordance of pre-Islamic Arabian names and inscriptions

Harel, Menashe

Harrington, Daniel J.

  • 'The Qumran Sapiential Texts in the Context of Biblical (OT and NT) and Second Temple Literature' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The Qumran library provides the earliest extant manuscripts of biblical wisdom books (Job, Proverbs, Qohelet, and Sirach). The extra-biblical sapiential texts expand the corpus of wisdom hymns and poems as well as the corpus of wisdom instructions. They personify to some extent Lady Folly and Lady Wisdom (though not as dramatically as Proverbs 8, Sirach 24, Wisdom 7 and 1 Enoch 42 do). The wisdom instructions provide further treatments of such standard wisdom topics as financial dealings, social relations, family matters, persons to be avoided and cultivated, the nature of happiness, and so forth. They present wisdom teachings in the context of creation and eschatology, link wisdom and the Torah, emphasize God as the source of true wisdom and the need for divine revelation, and add to the corpus of Jewish wisdom texts about women. The major problem raised by these texts is their relation to the Qumran community or sect.]

Harrington, Hannah

  • 'The Nature of Purity at Qumran' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The debate over the issue of moral and ritual purity continues with many scholars concluding that among the Qumran sectarians there was no differentiation between the two. A strong argument for this view has been the fact that water immersion was required for both the sinner and the ritually impure. However, the full implications of this claim have not been recognized. It is perhaps true that the sinner was regarded as both morally and ritually impure since he must immerse in water and must not touch the pure food, personnel or property of the community until he has done so. However, the converse, that the mildly impure is to be regarded as a sinner, cannot be the case.
      Some have pointed to the penitential pleas of the impure as evidence that they were in fact regarded as sinners. While it is the case that certain severely impure persons were regarded as sinners (e.g. the leper and the gonorrheic, cf. also biblical and rabbinic literature), this is not the case for all ritually impure persons. For example, those who have touched a corpse, while they are temporarily barred from holy areas, are never considered sinners.
      Thus, while it may be attractive to assert that the sectarians made no distinctions between moral and ritual impurity, the reality is not so simple. The sectarians espoused a system of impurity which parallel biblical and rabbinic norms. Penalties for the sinner are clearly stated while the mildly impure person merely submits to a simple purification process. The sinner must immerse in water symbolizing his new status as fit to stand before God as a member of the righteous community, nevertheless, this requirement is not sufficient evidence for the equation of moral and ritual impurity at Qumran.]

Harris, Roberta L.

Hausner, Amos

Hausner, Gideon

Healy, Rev. Timothy S.

Heinemann, J.

Hempel, Charlotte

  • '4QOrda (4Q159) and the Laws of the Damascus Document' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: I will attempt to show that 4Q159 (Ordinances), which has a number of affinities with the laws of the Damascus Document, may go back to a similar or even the same community or movement as parts of the laws of the Damascus Document. I will spell out the relationship between 4Q159 and parts of the Laws of the Damascus Document, in particular the general halakhah, by looking at a number of areas of correspondence between both texts.

Hempel, J.

Hendel, Ronald S.

  • 'The Text of the Torah after Qumran: Prospects and Retrospects' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: With the completion of the editio princeps of the Pentateuchal texts from Qumran in DJD 9 (1992), 12 (1994), and 14 (1995), it is appropriate to consider some goals for future research. One such area is the study of the stemmatic relationships among the Qumran texts and the other texts and versions. Much progress has been made but a more comprehensive treatment is now a desideratum. The problem of adequate methodology in this area requires careful attention, particularly the relative merits of statistical vs. genealogical methods. A second area is the use of Qumran texts in critical editions.
      The dominant model, enshrined in the ongoing Hebrew University Bible and Biblia Hebraica Quinta projects, is to include either all (HUB) or some (BHQ) readings
      of Qumran variants from MT (or, more precisely, from a particular exemplar of MT) in the apparatus of a diplomatic edition. It is worth considering whether the field would now be better served by the production of fully critical texts of (at least) the Torah, which arguably the knowledge gained from the study of the Qumran texts makes possible. The production of such texts is the theoretical goal of textual criticism, and may be a pragmatic goal for the books of the Torah.]

Hengel, Martin

  • Judaism and Hellenism 2 vols. (Philadelphia, 1974).

Herr, Moshe David

  • 'A Reevaluation of the Significance of the Recently Published Halakhic Materials from Qumran' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The problem of the identity of the Qumran Sect has been baffling scholars for the last fifty years (or even for the last one hundred years if one takes into account the attempts to identify the provenance of the Damascus Document, discovered and published by
      S. Schechter). Needless to say, the criteria for attempts have been ideological (i.e. theological) as well as "halakhic" data. The results have not been too satisfactory and no opinio communis has been reached, although most scholars have come to the conclusion that the Qumran sect is to be identified with the so-called Essenes described by Philo, Pliny, and Josephus. The recently published and already much discussed MMT has reopened the whole question. Some scholars have argued that the "halakha" of the MMT is that of the Sadducees, hence that the Qumran Sect is to be identified with the latter group. My paper will try to demonstrate why such conclusions are contrary to any criteria of statistical significance and are quite unconvincing.]

Hiers, R. H.

Higgins, A. J. B.

Hill, George

Himmelfarb, M.

Hinnells, J.

Hirschfeld, Yizhar

  • 'The Architectural Context of Qumran' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: At the well-known site of Khirbet Qumran northwest of the Dead Sea, the remains of a large complex from Late Hellenistic and Early Roman periods were discovered. An architectural examination of the site reveals that this type of complex was not uncommon; in recent years a number of similar sites were discovered in Herodian Judea. These sites are distinguished by their size, strategic position, and plan, which includes a fortified tower with dwelling quarters, agricultural installation, and water systems. On the basis of these data and comparison with the literary sources, these sites may be defined as manor houses of well-to-do landlords who benefited from the flourishing economy that followed the Roman conquest of the East.
      An analysis of the remains from Qumran attests to its function as the nucleus of a large estate located probably near 'Ein Feshka, south of Qumran, a place where cultivation of date palms and balsam was possible. The purpose of my lecture is to show Qumran in its context, as part of a settlement pattern which characterized Judea during the first centuries before and after the Common Era. The typological resemblance between Qumran and other sites may shed new light on the identification of Qumran's inhabitants during this period.]

Hoenig, Sidney

Horgan, M. P.

Huggins, R.

Humbert, J. B.

  • 'L'espace sacré a Qumrân. Propositions pour l'archéologie', RB 101 (1954) 161-214.

Hunzinger, Dr. Claus-Hunno

Hyatt, P.

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Ilan, Tal

  • 'Jewish Women's Archives in Antiquity What Did They Contain?' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: With the discovery and publication of the Babatha archive, the question of the documents Jewish women possessed in Antiquity could commence. The Babatha archive is itself a combined archive of two women - Babatha and her step-daughter Shelamzion - since three of the documents therein had clearly belonged to the latter. A third woman's archive, that of Salome Komaise, has recently been reconstructed and published by Hannah Cotton. The three archives diverge somewhat, but all three women were apparently in possession of three sorts of documents: a marriage contract, a deed of gift and a third document, in which a third party renounces his right to a certain property the woman possesses.
      It appears to me to be of no small consequence that the archives of Jewish women in Elephantine, written more than 500 years earlier and in a distant province of the Persian empire, include, beside others, also these three documents. In this paper I shall present the evidence, and time permitting, will attempt to explain the significance of this find.]

Isaac, Efraim

  • 'Textual Problems in 4QEnoch' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: After the publication of the Qumran Enoch fragments by Milik (1976), several reviews were published criticizing the work. However, surprisingly less than half a dozen articles specifically focus on the integrity of the readings and the restoration of the texts. Most of the critical works deal with the author's interpretations of Enochic traditions (in particular, the author's relegation of the so-called parables of Enoch to a post-Christian date...). In spite of the criticisms in fact numerous articles and books have been written about the Enochic traditions taking the published text or granted and claiming that the publication has shed new lights on I Enoch.
      The readings by Milik of the available fragments are by and large quite remarkable; however, they are not beyond criticism. On the other hand, the attempted restorations are to a great extent highly questionable, often unwarranted or not following Semitic idioms despite such claim. For instance, at 4Ena1 i En 1:1 ìáç [éøéï ùéèéï...] construction is not necessarily called for. There is no reason why this construction is preferable to ìáç [éøéï å ùéèéï...] : a good Semitic language pattern not only in Aramaic but also in Ethiopic. There is room for the conjunctive å between the two words as the ( in the Ethiopic text. Other similar examples can also be adduced.
      Secondly, contrary to what Milik and others have suggested, the Qumran fragments of the Book of Enoch confirm that the Ethiopic text is a reliable rendition of the works attributed to Enoch. The untenable claim made by those scholars is either made because of the use of late Ethiopic MSS or misreadings in the restorations of the Qumran fragments. I have elsewhere tried to demonstrate this with several examples (Golomb: Lambdin Festschrift, 1987).
      It is of course important for historians of religion to study published texts and the history of ideas and their interpretations. However, using 4QEnoch as an example, I shall discuss the need for scholars not only to concentrate on such work, but also to examine and reexamine published texts with view to debate more and understand better the readings and their restorations.]

Isaiah, George

Ivy, S.

  • see Wölfi, W. (1991)

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Janzen, J. G.

Jastram, N.

Jaubert, A.

Jauss, Hans-Robert

Jellicoe, S.

Jeremias, G.

Jeremias, J.

Johannson, N.

Johns, Loren L.
  • see Charlesworth, James H. (1997).

Johnson, Sherman E.

  • 'The Dead Sea Manual of Discipline and the Jerusalem Church of Acts', in The Scrolls and the New Testament Kister Stendahl (ed.) (New York, 1957) 129-142.
  • '11Q Melchizedek and the New Testament', ____ and A. S. van der Woude, NTS 12 (1966) 301-326.

Jonge, M. de

Jongeling, B.

  • A Classified Bibliography of the Finds in the Desert of Judah -- 1958-1969 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1971).
  • see Ploeg, J. P. M. van der (1971).

Josephus, Flavius
  • Death of an emperor
  • Josephus : The Life Against Apion (Loeb Classic Library, No. 186) Vol 1 (1926).
  • Life and Work of Flavius Josephus (1957).
  • The Great Roman-Jewish War : A. D. 66-70 (1970).
  • The Second Jewish Commonwealth : From the Maccabean Rebellion to the Outbreak of the Judaeo-Roman War (1971).
  • The Complete Works of Josephus (1974).
  • The Works of Flavius Josephus (1974).
  • Flavius Josephus: Selections from His Works. (1974).
  • Jewish War, Williamson (trans.) (1986).
  • Josephus : The Essential Writings, Paul L. Maier (ed.) 1987
  • Works of Josephus : Complete and Unabridged William Whiston (trans.) 1988
  • Josephus, the Essential Works : A Condensation of Jewish Antiquities and the Jewish War 1995

Jospe, Rachael and Wagner
  • Great Schisms in Jewish History (New York: Ktav Publishing House, Inc., 1984).

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Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila

  • 'DNA Analysis of the Judean Scrolls' presented with P. Smith, E. Tchernov, S. Woodward and C. Greenblatt at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Development of improved molecular techniques over the last few decades have made it possible to open up new areas of research in archaeology and history. One application of these techniques is being used to help resolve a number of questions concerning the Dead Sea Scroll parchments.
      Through amplification of different areas of DNA (using the polymerase chain reaction or PCR) from organic matter, sequence information can be used to look at the identity of the individual or species of the source of the material under study. Two genetic regions used in our research were: the cytochrome b gene, which varies little between individuals but can be used to resolve species differences; and the D-loop region, used to resolve individual differences in populations and herds.
      DNA analysis was carried out to identify the animal species that were used to produce the Dead Sea Scroll parchments. As base line material the mitochondrial DNA of ruminants, both primitive and modern, were determined. By comparing these to Temple Scroll material we were able to identify the animal source of the parchments as goats.
      Secondly using variation between the DNA extracted from different fragments we verified tentative joins on the Temple Scroll and hope to reveal some new joins using other fragments in the future.
      As well as aiding in the study of the literal significance of the scrolls, extraction from the parchments provides archaeozoologists with an unprecedented collection of animal skins from a past ruminant population. If a DNA can be obtained from a representative number of the scrolls, then the population of animals that were used to make the parchment can be identified. With further comparisons using contemporaneous bone material from Qumran it is envisaged that it will be possible to study the parchment industry and trade. This will also assist in answering the question concerning whether Qumran was the center of parchment production.]

Kahle, Paul

  • The Cairo Genizah (London, 1947; 2nd edn., Oxford, 1959).

Kampen, John

  • 'Lady Wisdom in Qumran Texts and the Gospel of Matthew' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The recently published texts from Qumran containing references to wisdom provide significant new evidence for the development of its use within Second Temple Judaism. This paper will attempt to integrate the evidence for its use in literary contexts which concentrate on themes on dualism and eschatology into the conception of wisdom as Torah, also documented in other literature of that era, such as Ben Sira. This analysis suggests that the social setting and function of wisdom in the Qumran literature also requires reexamination in light of the hypothesis which finds wisdom to be characteristic of the aristocratic and/or learned classes of Jewish society. This portrayal of wisdom in Qumran literature provides a new context for the evaluation of its use in the Gospel of Matthew, particularly Matthew 11:25-30. The significance of such an analysis for understanding this gospel's social history will be developed.]

(Kando) Shahin, Khalil Iskander

Kapera, Zdzislaw J.

  • 'Khirbet Qumran No More A Monastic Settlement', The Qumran Chronicle 2, no. 2 (February 1993) 73-84.

Katz, P.

Katzman, Avi

Kaufman, Asher Selig

  • 'The Courts of The First Temple and theTemple in the Temple Scroll' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Previous scholars (e.g. Yadin, Maier and Delcor) have compared the descriptions of the courts of the temple in the Temple Scroll with those of the First Temple, the Temple of Ezekiel and the Second Temple.
      The purpose of this article is to show that archaeological evidence in the temple area of Jerusalem has rendered possible detailed comparison of the courts in the Temple Scroll with those of the First Temple.
      There are three courts in both temples. However, in the First Temple only the Court of the Priests and the second court were concentric. The northern and western walls of the second court and of the third court, the Great Court (I Kings 7:9, 12), coincided. This arrangement places the first two courts asymmetrically in the north-western corner of the Great Court, in contrast to the arrangement in the Temple Scroll.
      The external dimensions of the Great Court were 500 cubits by 500 cubits (cubit of 42.8 cm), as in the second court of the Temple Scroll. The dimensions of the other courts of the First Temple, based on the 1:2 relation of the Tent of Meeting, contrast further with those of the Temple Scroll. There is one further dimension common to both temples, namely 300 cubits. This was the external length of the second court in the First Temple, the same length as in the Court of the Priests in the Temple Scroll.
      It would seem that Josephus did not describe the First Temple in terms of the Temple of the Temple Scroll.]

Kaufman, Steven A.

Kelso, J. A.

Kippenberg, H.

Kiraz, A.

Kister, M.

Klinghardt, Matthias

  • 'Qumran Nowhere? A Symposium on the Origin of the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Khirbet Qumran Site (Graz, Austria, 17-18 Oct. 1992)', The Qumran Chronicle 2, no.1 (Dec. 1992) 31-37.

Knibb, Michael A.

  • First and Second Book of Esdras, R.J. Coggins, ____ (1979).
  • Israel's Prophetic Tradition, R.J. Coggins, ____, et al (1982).
  • The Qumran Community (Cambridge Commentaries on Writings of the Jewish and Christian World, 200 BC to AD 200, Vol 2) (Cambridge, 1987).
  • The Qumran Community (Cambridge Commentaries on Writings of the Jewish and Christian World 200 BC to Ad 200, Vol 2) Vol 2 (1987).
  • Studies on the Testament of Job (Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series, 66), ____, Pieter W. Van Der Horst (eds.) (1990).

Knohl, Israel

  • 'Menahem The Messiah of Qumran' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The figure in the "Self-Glorification Hymn" is, in my view, a historical figure. This figure, entitled "the King's friend," is in my view Menahem the Essene, who had a friendly relationship with Herod, and who served as the head of the court beside Hillel. According to the Talmudic tradition, Menahem and his followers were later excommunicated. His messianic self-image can be explained in light of the conditions of his time: the return of the Qumran community to Jerusalem and his elevation to high status in the Herodian administration. Menahem's Messianic conception had a significant influence upon the formation of Jesus' self-understanding and his messianic expectation.]

Kobelski, P. J.

Koch, K.

Koenen, Ludwig

Koester, Helmut

Koldeway, Robert

Kraeling, C. H.

Kraemer, J. L.

Krasovec, Jose

  • 'The Confessional Prayer in 1QS 1.24-26 and CD 20.28-30' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: A great number of similar phrases of confessional prayers in the Bible (cf. especially 1 Kgs 8;47; Ezek 2:3; Ps 106:6; Dan 9:5; Neh 9:33; 2 Chr 6:37) and some other Jewish sources encourages us to make a fuller examination of arrangement of the verbs and other linguistic components in the light of their function within their immediate and wider contexts. Such examination shows that confession of sins is one of the most universal characteristics of the Jewish liturgy, and is therefore applicable to various circumstances and occasions. It reflects a conventional language, a common Jewish heritage of established phraseology, regularly employed to express confession of sins in various situations and combinations. One important occasion for reciting the formula is the annual renewal of the covenant as described in the Qumran Rule of the Community 1.16-2.18. It is obvious that an older cultic usage must lie behind the Qumran liturgy. The nature and extent of the phenomenon of repeated phrases confirms the theory of strong influence of the cult in Jewish religious literature. The main purpose of the paper is to establish the nature of the tradition, its origin, and its background.]

Kuhn, Heinz-Wolfgang

  • 'Qumran Texts and Historical Jesus. Parallels in Contrast' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: In the enormous amount of literature on Qumran and Jesus one finds more or less important similarities and differences, but generally misses the few decisive items to be worked out clearly. I will not get into the problem of John the Baptist, which is not very helpful here, and the sensational speculations which are not, or hardly, worth discussing (like a direct connection between Jesus and the Essenes); nor will I discuss what was shared by Jesus and these Essenes with many other Jews (especially the concept of one and the same God, more or less the same Hebrew Bible as a guiding source and also the expectation of the eschaton). I will concentrate my approach on a few fundamental questions of the problem concerning only the historical Jesus on the one hand and the Community of the Qumran texts on the other. The decisive problems to be discussed are:
      • in the first place the observance of the Torah (Is an assumed loose observance of halakhah in the Galilee and the Gaulanitis the background for the attitude of Jesus?),
      • further eschatology (How do future and present relate in the eschatology of the Qumran Community and Jesus?),
      • the commandment of mutual love in the Hebrew Scriptures (love of an enemy against hate of all non-covenanters), and
      • charismatic leadership (Jesus and the Teacher of Righteousness).
      Can a critical approach really show that Jesus was influenced in any way by the covenanters? How do we consider the "Sons of Light" in the parable of the Unjust Steward in Luke 16:8?]

Kuhn, K. G.

  • 'The Lord's Supper and the Communal Meal at Qumran', in The Scrolls and the New Testament Kister Stendahl (ed.) (New York, 1957) 65-93.
  • 'New Light on Temptation, Sin, and Flesh in the New Testament', in The Scrolls and the New Testament Kister Stendahl (ed.) (New York, 1957) 94-113

Küng, Hans

Kyle McCarter, P.

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Laato, A

La Barre, W.

Lagarde, P. de

Lambert, W. G.

Lange, Armin

  • 'Eschatological Wisdom in the Book of Qohelet and the Dead Sea Scrolls' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Before the Dead Sea Scrolls were found it was difficult to comprehend how the second redaction of the book of Qohelet (8,5f; 11,9c; 12,12-14) which introduced eschatological thought into the book could have existed in a sapiential context. After the preliminary publication of several manuscripts attesting to different wisdom texts in which eschatology is an important issue this redaction can be localized with more certainty.
      The Book of Mysteries alludes to Qoh 6:8 or 6:11 (1Q27 1 ii 3). That is remarkable because Qohelet was seldom recognized in Second Temple literature. In the Book of Mysteries and the musar lemebin (olim Sapiential Work A) - a text which was written somewhat earlier by members of the same circle in which the Book of Mysteries originates - eschatological thought is of importance. In the musar lemebin not only the idea of an eschatological judgment is expressed but the same term as in the second redaction of Qohelet is used to designate it, i.e. mishpat.
      Therefore there is a certain probability that the second redaction of Qohelet can be localized in the same circle in which the Book of Mysteries and the musar lemebin were written.]

Laperrousaz, Ernest-Marie

  • Qumrân. L'établissement essénien des bord de la Mer Morte: histoire et archéologie du site (Paris, 1976).
  • "Qumrán et Decourvertes au Desert de Juda, " Supplement au Dictionaire de la Bible, ____, H. Cazelles, and A. Feuillet (eds.), fasc. 51, supp. 9, Qumrán-Rabbinique (Litterature) (Paris: Letouzey and Ane, 1978). Annales--Economies, Sociétés, Civilisations 42, no. 6 (1987) 1305-1312. Forteresse ou Couvent?', EI 20 (1989) (the Y. Yadin Memorial Volume) 118-123.
  • Supplément au Dictionaire de la Bible, 'Qumrân' 51, cols. 744-789.
  • 'L'établissement de Qoumran près de la mer Morte:
  • 'Note sur l'origine des manuscrits de la mer Morte',

Lapp, N.

Lapp, P.

Larson, Erik

  • 'The Relation between the Greek and Aramaic Texts of Enoch' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Scholarship was greatly enriched by the discovery at Qumran of seven manuscripts of a work known as the Book of Enoch. Students of this book had long recognized that it is not a literary unity but rather a collection of at least five separate works forming an Enochic Pentateuch, each of which has its own history of development. The Qumran manuscripts have, in general, confirmed the correctness of these views.
      Prior to the discovery of the Scrolls, the Book of Enoch had only been known through translations into such languages as Greek, Ethiopic, Latin, Syriac, and Coptic. Of particular importance among these is the Greek version since it was from this translation the others were likely made. Knowledge of the Greek text has come primarily through the discovery of several, unfortunately incomplete, manuscripts that were among the finds of papyri uncovered in Egypt at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries. In addition, several long quotations appear in the work of the Byzantine writer George Syncellus.
      The Aramaic fragments found at Qumran have confirmed the view, long held by many scholars, that a Semitic original lay behind the previously known Greek text. They also make it possible for the first time to compare the translation to the original and thereby gain valuable knowledge not only regarding the text and redaction of the book itself, but also concerning the practice of the translation of Jewish writings in antiquity.
      The present paper will examine the relation between the Greek and Aramaic texts and consider such issues as the development of the Enochic corpus, the existence of differing recensions within the Aramaic and Greek manuscript traditions, and the style of the Greek translation.]

Lash, Major-General

Laurence, R.

Lazar, Rabbi

  • Third Century CE Galilean, commentator in the Palestinian Talmud.

Lehmann, Manfred R.

Leigh, R.

Leith, Mary Joan W.

  • 'Gleanings from Fourth Century BCE Bullae from Wadi Daliyeh' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The Wadi Daliyeh seal impressions attached to the Samaria Papyri were produced in the late Persian period, over a century before the inscribing of the oldest of the Dead Sea Scrolls. However, the sealings, the Samaria Papyri and the Dead Sea Scrolls alike bear witness to that elusive quarry, early Judaism. Thanks to their discovery in the Judean Desert, these precious artifacts from mid-fourth century Samaria are included in the publication program of the more renowned Scrolls.
      While largely uninscribed, the Wadi Daliyeh seal impressions speak a language of their own and raise an intriguing set of questions. The artistic motifs chosen for their personal seals by the Samarian men and women with Yahwistic names who predominate in the Samaria Papyri can be suggestive of larger religious issues including the regional differences that existed between Yahweh worshippers in Samaria and Judea in the Persian period; yet the Samarians' seal choice is somewhat comparable to that of Jews in Mesopotamian Nippur. What can one conclude about the extent of Greek cultural penetration into the province of Samaria in the fourth century on the basis of the predominantly Greek iconography of the sealings? How much of this Greek imagery arrived in Samaria via Phoenicia?
      In another area of inquiry, numismatic and glyptic art are commonly understood to be related. The publication of the Nablus Coin Hoard with its numerous fourth century Samarian issues has provided a rare opportunity to compare a substantial and intimately related corpus of seals and coins.]

Lemaire, Andre

  • 'Textual Testimony and Literary Criticism: 4Q448a and Ps 154' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: 4Q448a is famous for mentioning "King Jonathan" as read by Esther Eshel, Hanan Eshel and Ada Yardeni (IEJ 1992, 199-219). They rightly identified also Column A,8-10 as Ps 154,17-20 attested in 11QPsaXVIII and previously known by a Syriac translation studied by Martin Noth (ZAW 1930, 1-23) who had anticipated the existence of a Hebrew original.
      A detailed study of the readings, length of lacunas and interpretation of 4Q448a will try to show that :
      • 1. Column A probably contains two different psalms: lines 1-4 and lines 5-10.
      • 2. Like A, 8-10, lines 5-7 are also part of Ps 154, not as known in 11QPsa and in Syriac but as in a previous redaction which Noth had somehow also anticipated in his literary analysis.
      4Q448a is therefore a rare case when a previous careful literary analysis is now confirmed by a manuscript.]

Levine, Baruch A.

  • 'The Temple Scroll: Aspects of its Historical Provenance and Literary Character', BASOR 232 (1978) 3-24.
  • 'A Further Look at the Mo'adim of the Temple Scroll', in Archhaeology and History in the Dead Sea Scrolls. The New York University Conference in Memory of Yigael Yadin (Sheffield, U.K., 1990) 53-66.
  • 'The Various Workings of the Aramaic Legal Tradition at Nahal Hever' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The cache of papyri discovered by the late Yigael Yadin at Nahal Hever includes Hebrew, Aramaic and Nabatean-Aramaic texts of varying types, with the large part of them being of a legal character. The editing and publication of the Yadin collection is being prepared jointly by Ada Yardeni and Baruch Levine.
      Especially informative is the relationship between the Aramaic documents issued by Jews at Nahal Hever and those in Nabatean script and in the Nabatean version of Aramaic issued by Nabateans. We may observe what happens when two communities of differing national origins, differing religions, and differing scripts prepare documents in a language they use in common.
      The impact of the Aramaic legal tradition was overpowering, so that Jews and Nabateans, though of differing peoples, of differing religions, and using different scripts produced strikingly similar legal documents, although there are also differences. Arabic terms and idioms are used in greater measure by Nabateans, but also by Jews.
      This address will explore this interaction and attempt an assessment of what is distinctive in both sets of documents, and what is shared. The overall impression is that the latter is more significant than the former. Examples from sale and lease documents, deeds of grant, and other texts will be discussed.]

Lewis, Naphtali

  • The Documents from the Bar Kokhba Period in the Cave of Letters: Greek Papyri, ed. by ____, Aramaic and Nabataean Signatures and Subscriptions ed. by Yigael Yadin and Jonas C. Greenfield (JDS I; Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the Shrine of the Book, 1989).

Libman, Elena

  • 'The Conservation of the Dead Sea Scrolls in the Israel Antiquities Authority Laboratory' presented with Esther Boyd-Alkalay at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: This paper is dedicated to problems of the conservation of the Dead Sea Scrolls written on papyrus and parchment. Apart from the damages caused by age, one of the essential problems of restoration is the removal of the after-effects of fastening and storing materials applied during conservation attempts in the fifties, sixties, and seventies. The fragments were glued on cellotape and placed between sheets of glass. As a result, the cellotape adhesive penetrated into the parchment and appeared on the surface as greasy dark spots. The pressure of the glass intensified the contact of the cellotape with the parchment and accelerated this process. At first glance the state of preservation of papyrus seems to be much better than the parchment scrolls. The sticky mass of cellotape did not penetrate the papyri and remained on the surface. It may be less troublesome to remove this glue from the surface of the papyri, however, removing the cellotape itself from such a fibrous material as papyri without causing damage is a problematic undertaking. A good amount of the papyri fragments bear texts on both sides, thus cellotape is glued on the script. This makes the process of removing the tape too complicated.
      The scrolls passed through many hands in different venues; they were exposed to drastic environmental changes and treated by various methods. Unsuitable treatment in the fifties, sixties, and seventies compounded the scrolls' deteriorating condition. The cellotape had to be removed without delay.
      In 1991 a laboratory for conservation of the scrolls was established by the Israel Antiquities Authority on the premises of the Rockefeller Museum. Unfortunately, the process of aging cannot be halted. We will be happy if it can be slowed. We are trying to accomplish this with as little intervention as possible and by using reversible methods. We hope that our work contributes to the future preservation of these two thousand year old treasures.]

Licht, J.

Lichtenberger, Hermann

  • 'The Biblia Qumranica Project: A Synoptic Edition of the Biblical Manuscripts' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Under the direction of Hermann Lichtenberger and Armin Lange preparation has started of a synoptic edition of all manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible from the Dead Sea including the Aramaic and deutero-canonic writings. The manuscripts will be compared to the MT, LXX, Sam. For every version and/or manuscript its own column is provided. Included will be also the Greek manuscripts from the Dead Sea and related material. In addition all quotations of and allusions to biblical text in the Dead Sea Scrolls will be collected (especially from the Pesharim and other exegetical texts). Text-critical evidence from the Masora marginalis will be included.
      The existing editions of the Hebrew Bible present the text-critical evidence only in selection in an apparatus. Instead of that the new edition will give the full text of each manuscript and version in order to enable an encompassing comparison of the variants in their context. Because versions and manuscripts will be presented in their total orthographic and Hebraistic evidence comparative Hebraistic and orthographic analyses will be possible. A specimen of the edition will be distributed.]

Lieberman, S.

Lim, Timothy H.

  • 'Hippolytus on the Essenes' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: In this short paper, I should like to reconsider the value of Hippolytus' description of the Essenes as having splintered into four parties Refutatio omnium haeresium . Is this simply a conflated account of various sects in the Second Temple period, or does this contain an historical kernel about the later history of the Essenes?
      A comparison with Josephus' Jewish War and source-critical discussion will be advanced.]

Lippens, Captain Philippe

Liver, J.

Lovering, E. H., Jr.

Loza, José

Lücke, F.

Lundberg, Marilyn

  • 'The Misbegotten Messiah: A Re-Examination of a Disputed Reading in 1QSa (1Q28a)' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: It has long been claimed that 1QSa, "The Rule of the Congregation," makes reference to a Messiah begotten by God (Col. II, lines 11-12). This interpretation, in addition to requiring the restoration of "'l" [aleph-lamed] at the beginning of line 12, depends on reading "ywlyd" at the end of line 11, a reading that not all have accepted. Recently claims have been made that computer imaging, using scans of PAM photographs, shows that the reading "ywlyd" is, indeed, correct. This paper will re-examine the question, this time using high-resolution scans of high quality, high-resolution photographs taken in 1988, and applying computer imaging techniques developed by West Semitic Research in the last two years.
      Preliminary examination of the newer photographs has already shown that the upper left portion of Column II has two layers of text and, therefore, separating out those layers in an area as degraded as the end of line 11 may not be an easy, nor definitive, task.]

Lurie, B. Z.

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Mach, M.

Magen, Yitzhak

Magness, Jodi

  • 'A Reassessment of the Excavations of Qumran' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The site of Khirbet Qumran was excavated from 1951-56 under the direction of Roland de Vaux, who also conducted excavations at the nearby site of Ein Feshka in 1958. De Vaux divided the settlement of the sectarian community at Qumran into three phases, termed "Period Ia," "Period Ib," and "Period II." He dated Period Ia to the third quarter of the second century BCE, Period Ib from the last quarter of the second century BCE to 31 BCE, and Period II from 4-1 BCE to 68 CE.
      De Vaux's interpretation of Qumran as a sectarian settlement inhabited by the same community who deposited the scrolls in the nearby caves has recently been challenged by a number of scholars. In this paper, I consider the validity of these new interpretations, including the suggestion that the site functioned as a "villa rustica" during all or part of its main phase of existence. I also propose a revised chronology for the site of Qumran. The stratigraphic, ceramic, and numismatic evidence indicates that the sectarian settlement was not established before the first century BCE (and that it was sectarian from the start). Though the earthquake of 31 BCE damaged the site, occupation continued without interruption until 9/8 BCE or some time thereafter. At that time the settlement suffered a violent and apparently deliberate destruction by fire, causing the community to leave. The same population reoccupied the site early in the reign of Herod Archelaus. Finally, the ceramic and numismatic evidence indicated that the settlements at Ein Feshkha and Ein el-Ghuweir were not established before 31 BCE. Qumran is the only one of the three with a pre-Herodian phase of occupation.]

Maier, J.

Mann, Jacob

Marcus, R.

Martone, Corrado

  • 'Qumran and Stoicism: An Analysis of Some Common Traits' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The present paper will analyze some links between the Qumran sect and some features of the Hellenistic coeval world. Particular attention will be paid to the most widespread philosophical movement of the Hellenistic period, namely the Stoic movement. It is possible, in fact, to note some striking analogies between Stoic pre-determinism and the well-known dualistic doctrine which we read in 1QS III,13-IV, 26 as well as in other Qumran documents, such as astronomical and astrological texts.
      The present paper aims to evaluate such analogies (and differences) in order to single out one possible relationship between the ideology of the Qumran sect and that external world from which the Community of the Renewed Covenant wanted to be completely separated.]

Mathews, K. A.

  • see Freedman, David Noel (1985).

Maurer, Alexander

  • 'Some Remarks on 4Q510 and to 4Q511' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: In 1982 Maurice Baillet published the fragmentary remains of the two scrolls 4Q510 and 4Q511 in DJD VII. Both represent a work containing several pieces that deal with the subject of defense against evil spirits or demons. They are important for the theoretical study of this phenomenon. A material reconstruction in particular of the scroll 4Q511 makes it possible to establish the original extension of the text as well as to give information about the number of pieces and their construction.]

Mayer, B.

McCarter, P. Kyle

  • 'The Anomalous Spellings of the Copper Scroll' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: As noted by Milik in the editio princeps and by most other scholars who have worked extensively on the Copper Scroll (3Q15), its text is troubled by numerous graphic mistakes and other epigraphic peculiarities. These include a group of misspellings that do not conform to patterns familiar from other documents and cannot be explained on the basis of either phonological error or graphic confusion. Instead, these misspellings seem best explained on the assumption that the text was produced by a metal smith copying the individual signs of an original cursive manuscript that he could not read, either because he was unfamiliar with Hebrew and the script in which it was written or because he was altogether illiterate. This communication will document this unusual group of mistakes and briefly explore the implications of the assumption that the Copper Scroll scribe was illiterate.]

McGinn, B.

McLean, M. D.

Mendels, D.

Mendenhall, G. E.

Mertens, A.

Meshorer, Y.

  • 'The Numismatics from Qumran' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The numismatic material found at Qumran has not yet been properly published.

      The earliest coins are 8 Seleucid coins from Antiochus III to Antiochus IV and at least 10 coins of John Hyrcanus I. These coins are all characteristic of the late 2nd century BCE coin circulation in Judea, and together with the coins of Hyrcanus I attest to the fact that the site was inhabited during the last quarter of the 2nd century BCE. Six coins of Mattathias Antigonus point to the site's continual occupation until the end of the Hasmonean period.
      Whether or not there was a gap in the occupation of the site, between 31 BCE (the year of the earthquake) and the end of the 1st century BCE, as was suggested by de Vaux, is still under dispute. In our opinion, the numismatic evidence does not attest to this gap. Fifteen coins of King Herod were found, similar to the number of coins of Archelaus. The most important numismatic find of Qumran is the homogeneous hoard of 561 Tyrian shekels in three jugs in locus 120. Except for a few late Seleucid tetradrachms, all are Tyrian full shekels with a few half shekels. The latest date of these is "year 118" of the Tyrian era, which corresponds to 9/8 BCE. De Vaux has suggested that these lots were brought to the site at the beginning of phase II, explaining that since Tyrian shekels from the years, immediately following 9/8 BCE do not exist, it could well be that the hoard was placed on the site a number of years after the date of the latest coin, namely during the first stage of Archelaus' reign. Our information on the Tyrian shekels contradicts this supposition. In fact, there is no gap at all in the minting of Tyrian shekels during the years following 9/8 BCE. Since de Vaux's time, many more Tyrian shekels have come to light, mainly from the huge Usfiyeh hoard, and the "gaps" of dates on Tyrian shekels no longer exist. This information brings us to the inevitable conclusion that the Tyrian shekels hoard was buried in Qumran around 8 BCE, during King Herod's lifetime. This find, together with the 15 coins of Herod, points to the conclusion that the site was not abandoned but reconstructed and resettled after the earthquake. Then, for some unknown reason, the site was abandoned, in 8 BCE. The last stage of occupation is characterized primarily by the coins of Herod Archelaus, the Roman procurators, and Agrippa I, altogether some 180 coins.
      According to the excavators, the end of Qumran occurred in 68 CE. This date was again established on the basis of numismatic evidence. The theory, however, should be challenged. Sixty-eight proutot of "year two" and "year three" were found. Since no coins of "year four" were found, the excavators assumed that it was during this year that the site was destroyed. Principal questions are raised by two coins of Ascalon struck in 72/3 CE. These finds should be compared with the finds from Masada, where the same coins were discovered in the destruction level of 73 CE. We are under the impression that Qumran reached its end at the same time that Masada did. The two coins of Ascalon, as well as the two coins of Judea Capta found there, struck in 70-72 CE, may well have been used at the site until 73 CE, when Masada was destroyed. Several Bar Kokhba coins prove that during the Bar Kokhba War, some rebels reoccupied Qumran (and Ein Feshka) for short time.]

Metso, Sarianna K.

  • 'The Redaction of the Community Rule' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The availability of the Cave 4 material of the Community Rule has now opened up a new perspective on the development of the document and made it possible to test earlier theories that had been based almost entirely on 1QS. The hypothesis that the Community Rule was a collection of different texts originating at different times and from different sources is strengthened by my analysis of the 4QS manuscripts. It seems that no standard collection of component sections ever existed: the manuscript 4QSb appears to be the only copy of the Community Rule of which it can be stated with certainty that it included all the same component sections of the Community Rule as does 1QS.
      The final psalm included in 1QS X-XI, for example, seems to have been absent from 4QSe, and 4QSd contained no parallel to the material of 1QS I-IV at all. Instead of a linear textual development presupposed in most theories of the redaction of the Community Rule, the manuscripts of the Rule in my view attest to a plurality of textual traditions. Several different parallel versions of the Community Rule were in co-existence, and the scribes of the community continued copying a shorter and more original form of the text (represented by 4QSb,d in particular) even when a more extensive version (1QS) was already available. In the light of the Cave 4 material, the question as to the function of the Community Rule in the Qumran community needs to be reconsidered.]

Metzger, B. M.

  • 'The Furniture of the Scriptorium at Qumran', RQ 1 (1959) 509-515.

Metzinger, A.

Michaelis, W.

Michaud, H.

Milgrom, J.

  • See Charlesworth, James H., Princeton Theologica, vol. 1 (1994).

Milik, A.

Milik, Father Josef Tadeusz

  • DJD 1 1955).
  • 'Le Testament de Lévi en araméen: Fragment de la grotte 4 de Qumrân', RB 62 (1955) 398-406.
  • 'Le travail d'é des manuscrits du désert du Juda', (SVT 4; Leiden: Brill, 1957).
  • '"Prière de Nabonide" et autres écrits d'un cycle de Daniel. Fragments araméens de Qumrân 4', RB 63 (1956) 411-415.
  • Ten Years of Discovery in the Wilderness of Judaea, trans. J. Strugnell (Milik, Years; Napierville and London: Allenson, 1959).
  • DJD II (1961 and 1997).
  • DJD III: (1962 and 1997).
  • 'La patrie de Tobie', RB 73 (1966) 522.
  • Milik, MS; 'Milki-sedeq et Milki-resha dans les anciens écrits juifs et chrétiens', JJS 23 (1972) 95-144.
  • '4Q Visions de cAmram et une citation d'Origène', RB 79 (1972) 77-97.
  • The Books of Enoch: Aramaic Fragments of Qumrân Cave 4 (Milik, Books; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976).
  • DJD VI: (1977).
  • DJD XIII (1995).

Millar, Fergus

  • See Vermes, Geza (1973-87).

Misgav, H.

Moffat, William A.

Montaner, L. V.

Morgenstern, J.

Mowinkel, S.

Mowry, R. E.

Muchowski, Peter

Mueller, James R.

  • see Charlesworth, James H. (1987).

Muhammad edh-Dhib (Muhammad the Wolf)

Muilenburg, James

Muraoka, Takamitsu

  • 'Aspects of the Participle in Qumran Hebrew' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The paper looks at some issues related to the syntax of the participle in Qumran Hebrew documents. The usage in Qumran Hebrew will be compared with that in Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew to highlight its special traits. One of the concrete issues chosen for study is the periphrastic structure, the verb äéä plus the participle.]

Murphy-O'Connor, Father Jerome

  • see Charlesworth, James H. (1990).

Mussner, F.

N

N Top of Page


Nathan, H.

  • see Haas, Nicu (1968).

Naveh, J.

Ne'eman, Yuval

Nemoy, Leon
  • Karaite Anthology: Excerpts from the Early Literature (Yale University Press, 1952).

Neuser, Jacob
  • Judaism in the Beginning of Christianity (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984).

Netzer, Ehud

  • BAR (July/Aug. 1988) 18-33 (an article on the Herodium excavation).

Neuville, M. R.

Newsom, Carol A.

  • see Yadin, Y. 1984.
  • Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice: A Critical Edition (Harvard Semitic Studies, 27) -- (ed.) (Atlanta, 1985).
  • 'The "Psalms of Joshua" from Qumran Cave 4', JJS 39 (1988) 56-73.
  • '"Sectually Explicit" Literature from Qumran', in The Hebrew Bible and its Interpreters W. Propp, B. Halpern, and D. N. Freedman (eds.) (Winona Lake, Ind., 1990) 167-187.
  • The Women's Bible Commentary, ____, Sharon H. Ringe (Editor) (1992; pbk., 1995).

Nickelsburg, G. W.

Nir-el, Yoram
  • see Broshi, Magen (1997).

Nitzan, Bilhah

  • 'The Benediction Texts from Qumran' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Two of the biblical traditions reflected in the benediction texts from Qumran have a significant status: the tradition of the priestly blessing, and that of the Merkabah praise. Expressions of good wishes for the people of Israel or for the members of the Community are based on the priestly blessing of Num 6:24-26 (see the ceremonies of 1QS col. II, 1Q28b, and 4Q285 1 = 11QBer 1-2). By systematically elaborating the biblical priestly blessings with detailed felicitations, there is expressed the good destiny expected for the "sons of light" or for all Israel. The biblical tradition is thereby adapted literally and ideologically into the sectarian concept of a new covenant with God, and its eschatological reward. The Merkabah tradition of praising God is used in Qumran compositions to express the Holiness of God and the supreme authority of His dominion and His laws. Descriptions of the celestial throne, the heavenly temple and the angelic hosts who praise the Lord appear in variegated kinds of liturgy, such as a covenant ceremony (4QBerakhot), Sabbath prayer (4Q400-407 and parallels) and magical songs (4Q511 frg. 2 col. I and frg. 35). In these the worshippers, while performing the religious commandments, symbolize the presence of the Holiness of God among their community by using motifs of the Merkabah revealed to the righteous figures Moses, Ezekiel, Daniel and Enoch. Although this idea is expressed differently in each of the aforementioned texts, in accordance with its liturgical purpose, they share the dualistic concept of the sectarian ideology. This ideology is expressed by antithetically proclaiming the holiness and righteousness of the Lord and His worshippers against the abomination of wickedness in its variegated appearances, whether angelic, demonic, or human priesthood.]

North, Robert

  • 'Qumran and its Archaeology', CBQ 16, no.4 (Oct. 1954) 426ff.

Norton, G.

Noth, M.

Nötscher, F.

Nyberg, H. M.

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O'Callaghan, J.

Oegema, G.

Olyan, S.

Orlinsky, Harry M.

Osten-Sacken, P. von der

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Pagels, E.

Pardee, D. G.

  • see Wise, Michael O. (1994).

Parker, Harry S., III

Parrot, A.

Parry, Donald W.
  • see Booras, Steven W. (1997).
  • '4QSama (4Q51): A Preliminary Edition of 1 Samuel 14:24-24:22' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: PAM 43.11 comprises 16 fragments consisting of portions of 1 Samuel 14:24-25, 29-34, 47-49; 15:25-32; 17:3-6; 21:9; 23:15; 24:4-5, 8-9, 14-22. The largest fragment (24:14-22) has 12 lines and 97 identifiable characters; the smallest fragment (21:9) has two lines and 9 identifiable characters.
      In this paper I will:
      1. briefly introduce PAM 43.11 with a physical description of the fragments, their provenance and date;
      2. set forth a modern Hebrew transcription of text;
      3. present a number of textual notes explaining the Hebrew transcription;
      4. show variant readings of the ancient textual witnesses. The majority of my presentation will focus on the more significant variant readings;
      5. set forth reconstructions of the text.
      I will conclude by saying something about the textual character of the readings.]

Patrich, Joseph

  • 'Were there Extramural Dwelling Quarters at Qumran?' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The suggestion that extramural dwelling quarters existed at the sectarian settlement of Qumran was put forward by de Vaux. According to him, the majority of the sect members dwelt in huts or tents outside Qumran walls, since he was aware that the space inside the walls can accommodate only a moderate number of inhabitants. However, he was unable to locate these hypothetical dwelling quarters, or to describe their layout and extension, since there were no archaeological finds to substantiate this hypothesis.
      Most caves in the limestone escarpment above the marl plateau, first explored by his team in March 1952, and again by my team in Dec. 1983-Jan. 1994, proved to be inhabitable. In the marl plateau adjacent to Khirbet Qumran, only caves 4 and 8-10 seemed to be habitable. Otherwise, no traces of a compound of tents and huts, or of dispersed such structures that might have functioned for 150-200 years of Qumran existence, were discerned in the entire area. The few extramural occupational remains in the caves and crevices were ascribed to temporary hideouts in time of emergency, or occasional stay of shepherds.
      Recently, a claim was put forward by Magen Broshi and Hanan Eshel that they found new
      extramural dwellings in the marl plateau. The finds published so far are far from being persuasive.
      The purpose of this paper is to present to Qumran scholars, most of which are unfamiliar with the archaeology of desert structures, characteristic features of such remains either seasonal dwellings of nomadic population, or more prolonged habitations of ascetics. These materials may serve as comperanda for a proper evaluation of the finds underlying Broshi and Eshel's claims.]

Paul, Shalom M.

    see Cross, Frank Moore (1991).
Peires, J. B.

Peled, Ruth

  • see Sussman, Ayala (1993).

Peterson, Sigrid

  • 'Caves, Documents, Women: Archives and Archivists' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The clear archaeological context in which Yigael Yadin found the Babatha Archive (135 CE) at Nahal Hever establishes the connection of archives of letters and the women who maintained and (may have) produced them. Another woman in a separate location in the same cave contributed the archive of the Bar Kokhba letters. Other caves, such as Wadi Daliyeh, where this connection between women and documents may have existed are reviewed and the extent to which we can generalize an association of women with the production and use of letters is discussed.]

Petit, M.

Pfann, J.

Pfann, Stephen J.

  • see Tov, Emanuel (1993).
  • 'The Corpus of Manuscripts Written in the Qumran Cryptic Scripts' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The majority of the scrolls from the Judean Desert were penned in one of the three scripts: Jewish "square" script, paleo-Hebrew, and Greek. To these must be added Nabatean and three previously unknown scripts dubbed 'Cryptic A', 'Cryptic B', and 'Cryptic C', used in ten manuscripts from Qumran of diverse character though all apparently sectarian. Cryptic A, which is often utilized in order to conceal the contents of a text from unauthorized readers, may have been the personal script of the Maskîl. The use of this esoteric script in 4Q249, the Midrash Sefer Moshe (MSM), will be the focal point of this paper.]

Pfeiffer, R. H.

Phelps, Michael B.

  • 'IR Imaging of Ancient Manuscripts: Do It Yourself' presented with Gregory H. Bearman and Sheila I Spiro at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: In 1994 a team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Ancient Biblical Manuscript Center applied the principles of imaging spectroscopy to difficult Dead Sea Scroll fragments by digitally acquiring images of DSS and other ancient documents further into the infra red (IR) than film is able. Our project represented an ongoing trend toward collaborations between humanists and their counterparts in the sciences, which has proved particularly useful for scholars in all fields of textual studies (witness the explosive growth of databases, digital image collections, and graphical representations), and the technique has already contributed to the field by both enhancing readings of previously published documents and providing the basis for more complete and accurate transcription of new publications. Ever since Armin Lange demonstrated on digitized DSS texts (Computer Aided Text-Reconstruction & Transcription: CATT Manual, JCB Mohr, Tübingen [1993]) how using inexpensive desktop programs to manipulate digital texts can provide spectacular results, many scholars are now working with these tools, or are supervising their students, the next generation of scholars as they do so. Now, an increasing number of scholars (within and without the DSS community) who deal with ancient, often severely deteriorated, texts have expressed interest in acquiring IR digital images for themselves. Using the ABMC's new, portable imaging system, we will demonstrate an inexpensive and easy to use system by which scholars can acquire images without the expense of traveling with a team of technicians. Participants will see IR digital images of fragments, some of which will have been newly acquired during the month before the conference. Editors who so desire will have a chance before and during the conference to confer individually with the imaging team to learn how to acquire digital images and use them to improve readings.]

Philo of Alexandria

  • Philo Vol 6 (1989).
  • Philo Vol 8 (1939).
  • Philo : On the Decalogue, on the Special Laws Vol 7 (1937).
  • Philo : On the Embassy to Gaius; General Index Vol 10 (1962).
  • Philo : On the Unchangeableness of God, on Husbandry, Concerning Noah's Work As a Planter, on Drunkenness, on Sobriety Vol 3 (1989).
  • Philo : Questions and Answers on Exodus, Supplement II (1989).
  • Philo : Questions and Answers on Genesis, Supplement I (1989).
  • The Works of Philo, C.D. Yonge (trans.) (1993).
  • Philonis Alexandrini De Animalibus (1981).

Philonenko, M.

  • 'L'origine essénienne des cinq psaumes syriaques de David', Semitica 9 (1959) 35-48.
  • see Dupont-Sommer, André (1987).

Pike, Dana M.

  • '"A Light to Jacob" and Other Interesting Finds in 4QMiscellaneous' presented with Andrew C. Skinner at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The approximately 2900 miscellaneous and unidentified fragments from Cave 4 with which we are working comprise an interesting assortment of textual evidence from Qumran. In this paper we summarize our findings, providing information on vocabulary, scribal hands, ruled documents, the use of basic electronic enhancement to assist in reading texts and other pertinent topics. We also provide a preliminary presentation/publication of another small fragment, the text on which appears to be previously unknown.]

Pisano, S.

Pliny

  • Epistularum Libri Decem (1963).
  • Fifty Letters of Pliny (1969).
  • Selections from Pliny's Letters (Latin Texts Series) (1973).
  • Selections from Pliny's Letters : Handbook, ____, M. R. Griffin (ed.) (1977).
  • Letters of the Younger Pliny (1978).
  • Pliny : A Selection of His Letters (Translations from Greek and Roman Authors), Pliny, et al (1979).
  • Natural History : A Selection, ____, John F. Healy (1991).

Ploeg, J. P. M. van der

  • Le targum de Job de la grotte XI de Qumrân ____ and A. S. van der Woude, with the collaboration of B. Jongeling (Leiden: Brill for Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, 1971).

Plummer, R.

Pomykala, Kenneth E.
  • The Davidic Dynasty Tradition in Early Judaism: It's History and Significance for Messianism (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1995).

Porten, Bezalel

  • 'Boundary Descriptions in the Bible and in Conveyances from Egypt and the Judean Desert' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Some dozen Biblical passages from all parts of the Bible (Torah, Prophets, and Writings) record boundary descriptions or list in sequence the four points of the compass. Strikingly, virtually each passage has a different geographical order. In legal contracts, however, the order tended to become standardized. The sequence SNEW was de rigueur in demotic and Arabic documents and dominant in Greek and Coptic contracts. In nine Judean contracts the order is EWSN (5x), EWNS (3x) and SENW (1x). At Elephantine the problem is compounded by the use of the terms ìaboveî (= A) and ìbelowî (= B) for the NS directions and the uncertainty as to their meaning. Is ìaboveî north or ìupstream,î as the Nile flows, and so ìsouth?î Ten documents display five different sequences: ABEW (5x), EWAB (2x), BAWE (1x), EWBA (1x), and EABW (1x). The paper will clarify the meaning of ìaboveî and ìbelowî and propose an explanation for the multiplicity of pattern at Elephantine and the deviation in one Judean document.]

Preiss, T.

Price, Jonathan J.

  • Jerusalem under Siege: The Collapse of the Jewish State, 66-70 C.E. (Leiden, 1992).

Puech, Father Émile

  • 'Fragments du Psaume 122 dans un manuscript hébreu de la grotte iv', RQ 9 (1977-1978) 547-554.
  • 'Le Testament de Qahat en araméen de la Grotte 4 (4QTQah)', RQ 15 (1991) 23-54.
  • '4Q525 et les péricopes des béatitudes en Ben Sira et Matthieu', RB 98 (1991) 80-106.
  • 'Fragments d'un apocryphe de Lévi et le personnage eschatologique: 4QTestLévic-d? et 4QAja in STJD 11 (1992).
  • 'Fragment d'une apocalypse en Araméen (4Q246 = pseudo-Danb et le "Royaume de Dieu"', RB 99 (1992) 98-131.
  • 'Immortality and Life after Death' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Did the Qumran Community, and more generally the Essenes, believe in immortality of the soul after death, the just enjoying eternal bliss and the wicked unending torment, as Flavius Josephus maintains mainly in War II 151-158, ascribing to them a neo-pythagorean belief, or did their eschatological belief encompass the Last Judgment, the resurrection of the body of the just that will be immortal, the conflagration of the universe and the eternal chastisement of the wicked, as Hippolytus of Rome asserts in the Elenchos IX (27?
      Is it possible to find a solution concerning these contradictory views throughout the recently recovered Dead Sea Scrolls? And do we have enough internal evidence to ground a solution?
      To answer properly we have to search in the biblical books which were also accepted, copied and largely used by them, and finally in their own compositions removed from the Qumran caves some decades ago.
      The answer must then be checked and compared with the archaeological results of the Essenesí settlements, mainly Khirbet Qumran, in order to know if these contradict or confirm the conclusions of the texts.
      Finally it will be possible to have a better opinion on the contradictory accounts of Flavius Josephus and Hippolytus of Rome and to propose an explanation of the genesis of these two divergent views.]

Plummer. R.

Preiss, T.

Puech, T.

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Qimron, Elisha

  • 'An Unpublished Halakhic Letter from Qumran', ____ and J. Strugnell in Biblical Archaeology Today. Proceedings of the International Congress on Biblical Archaeology Janet Amitai (ed.) (Jerusalem, 1985) 400-407.
  • The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls(Harvard Semitic Studies, Vol 29: Atlanta, 1986).
  • 'An Unpublished Halakhic Letter from Qumran', IMJ 4 (1985) 9-12. Li>DJD X (1994).
  • See Charlesworth, James H., Princeton Theologica, vol. 1 (1994).
  • The language and linguistic background of the Isaiah Scroll (1QIsa) [by] E. Y. Kutscher : indices and corrections (by) Elisha Qimron.

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Rabin, Chaim

  • Qumran Studies (London: Oxford University Press, 1957).
  • The Zadokite Documents (Oxford, 1954; 2nd ed., Oxford, 1958).
  • Aspects of the Dead Sea Scrolls ____ and Y. Yadin (eds.), 56-87 (Scripta Hierosolymitana IV: Jerusalem, 1958)

Rabinovitch, Abraham

  • 'A Prayer for King Yonaton', Jerusalem Post Magazine (1992) 8, 9-11.

Rabinowitch, I.

Rad, G. von

Rappaport, U.

  • see Dimant, Devorah (1992).

Ratzinger, Cardinal Joseph

Reed, S. A.

  • Dead Sea Scrolls Inventory Project: Lists of Documents, Photographs and Museum Plates (DSSIP; Claremont, Calif.: Ancient Biblical Manuscript Center, 1991- ).
  • see Tov, Emanuel (1993).

Reed, William L.

  • 'The Qumran Caves Expedition of March 1952', BASOR, 135 (1954) 8ff.

Reich, Ronny

  • 'The Miqwaíot (Immersion Baths) of Qumran' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The relatively large number of stepped and plastered water installations, which are fed by the aqueduct which crosses the site, catches the eye of the visitor to Qumran. R. de Vaux, the excavator of the site, has devoted little attention to these installations. Although claiming that the question of their function, as serving cultic purposes, has been raised, he dismissed the suggestion, since only two parallels from Jerusalem were brought up (from the Tombs of the Kings and from Bethany), summing up that these installations were in fact ìcisternsî. Only two installations (nos. 138 and 68) were somehow defined by him as ìBathsî. Several studies were published on the subject, by North (1962), Strobel (1972), Wood (1984), trying to reach a better understanding of this phenomenon.
      The present paper wishes to examine the Qumran installations in respect to the characteristics of this type of installation - today undoubtedly defined as Miqwaíot (Jewish ritual baths) - which were constructed in large numbers in Jewish towns and rural settlements. The examination is directed to the layout of the installation, as well as to its details.
      From the large amount of installations of this kind excavated in Jerusalem and Jericho, it seems that the Qumran installations are built according to a Jerusalem architectural tradition, rather than that of Jericho. It will be demonstrated also that the density of these installations at Qumran is not outstanding, but that it is quite similar to that found in Jerusalem.]

Reickle, B.

Rengstorf, Karl-Heinrick

  • Hirbet Qumran und die Bibliothek vom Totem Meer (Studia Delitzschiana 5: Stuttgart, 1960).
  • Hirbet Qumran and the Problem of the Dead Sea Caves. (Leiden, 1963).

Ringgren, Helmer
  • see Charlesworth, James H. (1995).

Rivkin, Ellis

Rix, Stephen

Roberts, B. J.

Roberts, C. H.

Robinson, James M.

  • Nag Hammadi Studies, ____, Martin Krause, and Fredrik Wisse (series eds.) (Leiden, 1975-91)
  • The Nag Hammadi Library in English ____ (ed.) (San Francisco, 1977).
  • see Eisenman, Robert H. (1991).

Rof, Alexander

  • 'Historico-Literary Aspects of the Qumran Biblical Scrolls' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The biblical and parabiblical scrolls from Qumran were copied in the latter part of the Second Commonwealth, after the making of the Septuagint version. A priori one cannot expect these scrolls to bear witness to the early stages of the formation of biblical literature, but rather to the late ones. However, since the scrolls illustrate the methods applied by the scribes, we may at times extrapolate from the late ones to their predecessors.
      The following methods, used by Second Commonwealth scribes, are attested by the scrolls.
      1. Compilation and conflation. The joining of two distinct versions of the same event into one single sequence has been known through the Samaritan Pentateuch. Today it is evidenced by Jewish scrolls such as 4QpalExodm and 4QNumb. MT has fewer traces of this practice: cf. Num 21:33-35; 33:40; Deut 1:39aa.
      2. Supplementation, i.e., the expansion of a text by secondary elements, not borrowed from parallel texts, but rather created by the scribes out of exegetical or parenetic intents. The phenomenon, suspected long ago by critics, is now demonstrated by the comparison of Deut 5:29-30 (31-32) MT with the tefillin 4Q128, 129, 137. An additional instance obtains in 4Q158:7 concerning the same passage.
      3. Omission and abbreviation. Large scale deletions out of ideological motives were practiced by the Chronicler; cf. The omission of 2 Sam 1-4; 11-20; 1Kgs 1-2 from his narrative. On a smaller scale they feature JeremiahLXX and 4QJerb. Their minuses concerning the mention of exile for Zedekia and his people (Jer 52) and concerning the name sebaí(t (passim) are due to intentional reworking.
      4. Reorganization of the material. In JeremiahLXX the oracles against the nations come after 25:13 ñ a secondary rearrangement, in my opinion. Similarly, in the Book of Joshua the three main textual witnesses ñ MT, LXX, 4QJosha ñ present differing arrangements of the material, especially in what relates to most recent passages.
      5. Rewriting of stories out of interpretive concerns. An outstanding instance of this process is 1 Chr 21 which presents a restatement of 2 Sam 24. The theology of 1 Chr 21 being clearly distinct from that of the Book of Chronicles, it is patent that the former has not been composed by the Chronicler. With the discovery of 4QSama it has become evident that the author of 1 Chr 21 worked on a scroll of Samuel, rewriting one story in it.
      The Qumran scrolls attest to a great variety of processes which affected the biblical literature during the Second Commonwealth. The witnesses vary from one passage to another: the Qumran texts present primary as well as secondary readings. The decision which process was at work, and where, depends on the discernment and judgment exercised by the scholars.]

Romer, John

Rössler, D.

Rost, L.

Roth, Cecil

  • Studies in books and booklore; essays in Jewish bibliography and allied subjects
  • The Historical Background of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Oxford, 1958) and (New York, 1959).
  • 'Qumran and Masada: A Final Clarification Regarding the Dead Sea Sect', RQ 5 (1964-1966) 81-87.
  • Dead Sea Scrolls: a New Historical Approach (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1965).
  • Gleanings Essays in Jewish History, Letters and Art (1967).
  • A Short History of the Jewish People (1969).
  • A History of the Jews (1970).
  • Jewish Art : An Illustrated History, ____ (ed.) (1971).
  • History of the Jews in Venice (1975).
  • A History of the Marranos (Schocken Paperbacks on Judaica, 1975).
  • Sassoon Dynasty, ____, Mira Wilkins (Editor) (1977).
  • Jewish Contribution to Civilization (1978).
  • Jews in the Renaissance (1978).
  • A Short History of the Jewish People (1979).
  • History of the Jews in England (1979).
  • The Concise Jewish Encyclopedia (1980).
  • Dona Gracia of the House of Nasi (1992).
  • The House of Nasi : The Duke of Naxos (1992).
  • Encyclopedia Judaica ____ (Editor) 1994).
  • La Inquisicion Espanola (1995).
  • The Spanish Inquisition, ____, Nadia May 1995).
  • Spanish Inquisition (1996).

Rothstein, David

  • From Bible to Murabba'at. Studies in the Literary, Textural and Scribal Features of Phylacteries and Mezuzot in Ancient Israel and Early Judaism UCLA Doctoral Dissertation 1992 (Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1993).

Rowland, C.

Rowley, H. H.

Rueger, H. Peter

Rufus, Willian

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Saad, Joseph

Sacchi, P.

Safrai, Zeev

  • 'The Contribution of the Rabbinic Sources to the Study of the Dead Sea Sect' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: The purpose of this lecture is to examine the reliability of the Rabbinic tradition regarding the sectarian controversies in the late Second Temple period.
      The Rabbinic literature transmits traditions regarding controversies, the majority halakhic, between the Boethusians or the Sadducees, and the Rabbis (the Pharisees?). Some of these disagreements are also known from the sectarian writings, and scholars have already indicated the similarity between the laws attributed to the Boethusians or the Sadducees and those described in the writings found in Qumran. The lecture will examine in a methodical and quantitative manner how many of the halakhot attributed to the Boethusians have parallels in the sectarian literature, and how many parallels exist for the disagreements attributed to the Sadducees. We must therefore investigate all the parallels in the Rabbinic literature and the various manuscripts. The general impression gained is that there are only a few variants among the sources regarding the attribution of the disagreements. Most of the disagreements attributed to the Boethusians are known from the literature of the sect, as are those attributed to the Sadducees, albeit with a smaller number of parallels. The conclusion itself is not new; the contribution of this lecture lies in its providing a quantitative tool for the evaluation of the phenomenon.
      We must now return to the explanations which have already been offered. Do the Rabbinic memories regarding the Boethusians preserve the memory of the Essenes? Alternately, does this attest to the halakhic affinity between the Boethusians and the latter? Or perhaps, the Rabbis inadvertently attributed to the Boethusians all the sectarian quarrels of those who had left the Rabbinic camp. The quantitative analysis, which is the subject of this lecture, imparts an additional dimension to such inquiry.
      The many parallels attest that the Rabbinic literature throughout the generations, including later traditions, reflects a realistic, and quite reliable, memory of the Second Temple period intersectarian quarrels. Additional evidence is provided by the manner of thinking, language, and halakhic terminology that appear in the rabbinic literature and are also known from the sectarian literature. All this leads to a reevaluation of the value of the former form of the study of the history of the period, which is central to recent scholarly research.]

    Samuel, Athanasius Yeshua

    • Treasure of Qumran. My Story of the Dead Sea Scrolls (London, 1968).

Sanders, E. P.

  • Paul and Palestinian Judaism : A Comparison of Patterns of Religion (1977).
  • Paul, the Law and the Jewish People (Philadelphia, 1983).
  • Jesus and Judaism (Philadelphia, 1985).
  • Jesus, the Gospels, and the Church : Essays in Honor of William R Farmer, ____ (ed.) (1988).
  • People from the Bible, Martin Woodrow, ____ (1989).
  • Studying the Synoptic Gospels, Margaret Davies, ____ (1990).
  • The tendencies of the synoptic tradition
  • Jewish and Christian Self-Definition, 2 vols. , ____ (ed.) (1990).
  • Jewish Law from Jesus to the Mishnah : Five Studies (1990).
  • Jewish and Christian Self-Definition Vol 3, ____ (ed.) (1990).
  • Paul (Past Masters) (1991).
  • Judaism : Practice and Belief, 63 BCE to 66 CE (1992).
  • The Historical Figure of Jesus (1994).

Sanders, J. A.

  • 'Two Non-Canonical Psalms in 11QPsa', Zeischrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 76 (1964) 64-76.
  • DJD IV: (1965).
  • The Dead Sea Psalms Scroll (Ithaca, N.Y., 1967).
  • Torah and Canon (1972).
  • "Palestinian Manuscripts 1947-1972," JJS 24 (1973) 74-83.
  • God Has a Story Too : Sermons in Context (1979).
  • Canon and Community : A Guide to Canonical Criticism (Guides to Biblical Scholarship)(Old Testament Series)) (1984).
  • From Sacred Story to Sacred Text (1992).

Sanderson, Judith E.

  • DJD IX: (1992).

Säve-Söderberg, T.

Schäfer, P.

Schattner-Riesner, Ursula

  • 'Some Observations on the Aramaic in Qumran: The 3rd Fem. Sing. Pronominal Suffix' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: A characteristic trait of the Aramaic literary texts from Qumran is the longer form of the suffix -hí/-hh instead of the well-known -h (ah) of other Aramaic dialects. The phenomenon had been explained as a survival of old Aramaic with preservation of the final long - vowel (beside -t and -k ), as the result of diglossia or as a hebraism. This brief survey examines ìlí tat de la questionî of this feature among others.]

Schechter, Solomon

  • Fragments of a Zadokite Work--Documents of Jewish Secteries 1 (Cambridge, 1910).
  • Documents of Jewish Sectaries (1910; Reprint, Library of Biblical Studies, New York: KTAV Publishing House, 1970).
  • Studies in Judaism, Essays on Persons Concepts and Movements of Thought (1986).
  • Aspects of Rabbinic Theology : Including the Original Preface of 1909 & the Introduction by Loius Finkelstein (1993).

Schiffman, Lawrence H., see the paper by Sandra S. Williams describing his theories.

  • The Halakhah at Qumran [Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquity, vol. 16] (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1975).
  • Sectarian Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls: Courts, Testimony and the Penal Code (Chico: Scholars Press, 1983).
  • 'The New Halakhic Letter (4QMMT) and the Origins of Dead Sea Sect', BA June (1989) 64-73.
  • 'The Temple Scroll and the System of Jewish Law in the Second Temple Period', in Temple Scroll Studies G. Brooke (ed.) (Sheffield, U.K., 1989) 239-255.
  • 'The New Halakhic Letter (4QMMT) and the Origins of the Dead Sea Sect', BA 53 (June 1990) 64-73.
  • Law, Custom and Messianism in the Dead Sea Sect (Jerusalem, 1993) [Hebrew].
  • Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls (Philadelphia and Jerusalem: The Jewish Publication Society, 1994).
  • See Charlesworth, James H., Princeton Theologica, vol. 1 (1994).
  • see Dimant, Devorah (1995).
  • 'The Judean Scrolls and the History of Judaism' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: Ever since the discovery of the various collections of Judean Desert documents, it has been customary to study each as an independent entity, paying virtually no attention to the interrelation of these disparate materials. This presentation will attempt to demonstrate that when taken together the scroll materials from Wadi Daliyeh, Qumran, Masada, and Nahal Hever can help in our reconstruction of the history of Judaism in Late Antiquity. These materials, when analyzed as a group, can yield important results which cannot be gained when they are investigated individually. Subjects to be treated include the linguistic situation, the corpus of Second Temple literature, canonization of the Hebrew scriptures, Jewish-non-Jewish relations, Jewish reactions to Greco-Roman culture, legal formulary and the development of Jewish law.]

Schillebeeckx, Father Edward

Schliemann, Heinrich

Schlosser, Robert

Schniedewind, Willian M.

  • 'The Davidic Dynasty and Biblical Interpretation in the Qumran Community' presented at An International Congress The Dead Sea Scrolls - Fifty Years After Their Discovery: Major Issues and New Approaches in Jerusalem, July 20-25,1997.

      [Abstract: An eschatological interpretation of the davidic dynasty among the Qumran sectarians is evidenced (e.g., 4QFlorilegium, Damascus Document). This eschatological interpretation of the davidic dynasty-tradition was marginal in ancient Judaism and its prevalence at Qumran was undoubtedly shaped by the social and historical context of the Qumran sectarians. Although the eschatological interpretation of the davidic dynasty is quite unique, the interpretation of the davidic dynasty-traditions follows well plowed exegetical categories. The association and combination of various proof texts (e.g., Amos 9:11; Ex. 15:17; 2 Sam 7:10) used in the Qumran interpretation already crystallizes within the biblical corpus as well as the Septuagint. Thus, while the final conclusion of the Qumran exegetes might be quite original, they nevertheless relied on well established exegetical traditions in their interpretation of the davidic dynasty-traditions.]

Scholem, G.

Schopenhauer, A.

Schubert, Kurt
  • The Dead Sea Community: It's Origin and Teachings (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1959).

Schuller, Eileen M.

  • Non-Canonical Psalms from Qumran--A Pseudepigraphical Collection (Atlanta, 1986).

Schüpphaus, J.

Schuré, Edouard

Schürer, Emile

  • ____, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (175 B.C. - A.D. 135), revised and edited English version by Geza Vermes, Fergus Millar and Matthew Goodman (eds.), 3 vols. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1973-1987), ____, 'The Writings of the Qumran Community', Vol III.1, 380-469.

Schweizer, E.

Segal, M. H.

Seller, O. R.

  • 'Radiocarbon dating of Cloth from the cAin Feshka Cave', BASOR 123 (1951) 24-26.

Shanks, Hershel

  • The City of David : A Guide to Biblical Jerusalem (1975).
  • Judaism in Stone (1979).
  • Recent Archaeology in the Land of Israel, ____, Benjamin Mazar (1985).
  • Ancient Israel : A Short History from Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple (1988).
  • Archaeology and the Bible : The Best of BAR : Early Israel Vol 1, ____, Dan P. Cole (eds.) (1990).
  • Archaeology and the Bible : The Best of BAR : Archaeology in the World of Herod, Jesus and Paul Vol 2, ____, Dan P. Cole (eds.) (1990).
  • Early Israel, ____ (ed.) 1990
  • "The Dead Sea Scrolls: After Forty Years." In a Symposium at the Smithsonian Institute, ____, James C. Vanderkam, Kyle P. McCarter, Jr., James A. Sanders (eds.) (Washington, D.C.: Biblical Archaeology Society, October 27, 1990).
  • The Rise of Ancient Israel : Symposium at the Smithsonian Institution, October 26, 1991, ____, et al (1992).
  • Understanding the Dead Sea Scrolls: A Reader from the Biblical Archaeology Review, ____ (ed.) (New York: Random House, 1991).
  • In the Temple of Solomon and the Tomb of Caiaphas (1993).
  • The Search for Jesus : Modern Scholarship Looks at the Gospels, ____, et al (1993).
  • see Cross, Frank Moore (1994).
  • Jerusalem : An Archaeological Biography, ____, Jason Epstein (eds.) (1995).
  • Feminist Approaches to the Bible (1995).

Shapira, Moses William

Sharon, Ariel

Shatzman, Israel

Shelton, J. C.

Silberman, L.

Skehan, Monsignor Patrick W.(d. 1980)

  • "The Biblical Scrolls from Qumran and the Text of the Old Testament," BA 28 (1965) 87-100.
  • Studies in Israelite Poetry and Wisdom (Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series 1) (1971).
  • The Wisdom of Ben Sira; A New Translation with Notes (The Anchor Bible, vol. 39) Vol 39 (1987).
  • DJD IX: (1992).

Smith, G. Adam

  • The Historical Geography of the Holy Land (London, 1894).

Smith, Morton

  • '4Q462 (Narrative) Fragment 1: A Preliminary Edition', RQ 15 (1991) 55-77.

P. Smith

  • see Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila (1997).

Sokoloff, M.

  • see Greenfield, Jonas C. (1989).

Sowmy, Ibrahim

Spencer, Herbert

Spiro, Sheila I.

  • see Phelps, Michael B. (1997).

Spronk, K.

Starky, Father Jean

  • 'Les quatre étapes du messinaisme à Qumrân', RB 70 (1963) 503.
  • 'Jérusalem et les manuscrits de la Mer Morte', Le Monde de la Bible 1 (1977) 38-40.

Steckoll, S. H.

Stegemann, Hartmut

  • 'Some Aspects of Eschatology in Texts from the Qumran Community and in the Teachings of Jesus', in Biblical Archaeology Today. Proceedings of the International Congress on Biblical Archaeology Janet Amitai (ed.) (Jerusalem, 1985).
  • Die Essener, Qumran, Jahannes der Täufer and Jesus: Ein Sachbuch (Freiburg: Basel and Wein: Herder, 1993).

Stendahl, Krister

  • The Scrolls and the New Testament (ed.) (New York, 1957).
  • Bible and the Role of Women; A Case Study in Hermeneutics (Facet Bks) (1966).
  • Paul Among Jews and Gentiles and Other Essays (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1976).
  • Meanings : The Bible As Document and As Guide (1984).
  • >Holy Week Preaching (1985).
  • see Charlesworth, James H. (1991).
  • School of St. Matthew & Its Use of the Old Testament (1991).
  • Final Account : Paul's Letter to the Romans (1995).
  • The New Testament : An Orthodox Perspective : Scripture, Tradition, Hermeneutics Vol 1, Theodore G. Stylianopoulos, ____ (Introduction) (1997).
  • Energy for life : reflections on the theme "Come, Holy Spirit, renew the whole creation".
  • Immortality and Resurrection : Ingersoll Lectures, ____ (ed.).

Stern, Menachem

Steudel, A.

Stone, Michael E.

  • Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period: Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, Qumran Sectarian Writings, Philo, Josephus, ____ (ed.) (Assen: Van Corcum and Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984).

Strack, H. L.

Strange, James

Strugnell, John (b. 1930)

  • 'The Angelic Liturgy at Qumran', Vetus Testamentum Supplementae 7 (Leiden, 1960) 318-345.
  • 'Noted en marge du Volume V des "Discoveries in the Judaean Desert of Jordan"', RQ 7 (1970) 163-276. This is considered by some to be an essential supplement to DJD V, because of Allegro's alleged incompetence. Others think it is a petty attempt to discredit Allegro.
  • see Qimron, Elisha (1985).
  • '4Q Second Ezekial', ____ and D. Diamant, RQ 13 (1988) 54-58.
  • see Dimant, Devorah (1990).
  • see Wölfi, W. (1991).
  • DJD X (1994).
  • The Books of Elijah, Parts 1-2, Michael E. Stone and ____.
  • Of Scribes and Scrolls : Studies on the Hebrew Bible, Intertestamental Judaism, and Christian Origins (College Theology Society Resources in Religion), ____ (ed.), et al.

Stuckenbruck, L. T.

  • See Charlesworth, James H., Princeton Theologica, vol. 1 (1994).

Sukenik, Eleazer Lippe

  • The Dead Sea Scrolls of the Hebrew University (Jerusalem, 1955). [English Translation]

Sussman, Ayala

  • Scrolls from the Dead Sea: An Exhibition of Scrolls and Archaeological Artificts from the Collections of the Israel Antiquities Authority ____ and Ruth Peled (eds.) (Washington, D.C., 1993).

Sussman, Jacob

Suter, D.

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Tabor, James D.

  • 'A Pierced or Piercing Messiah? - The Verdict is still out', BAR (Nov./Dec. 1992) 58-59.
  • see Wise, Michael O. (1992).

Talmon, Shemaryahu

  • 'The Calendar of the Covenanters of the Judean Desert', in Aspects of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Scripta Hierosolymitana 4) C. Rabin and Y. Yadin (eds.) (Jerusalem, 1958) 162-199.
  • see Cross, Frank Moore (1975).
  • King, Cult and Calendar in Ancient Israel : Collected Studies (1986).
  • The World of Qumran from Within: Collected Studies (Jerusalem: Magnes Press; Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1989).
  • 'Fragments of the Scrolls from Masada', EI 20 (1989) 278-286.
  • 'A Fragment from a Pseudepigraphic Scroll to the Book of Joshua from Masada', [Hebrew] in Shai lehayyim rabin M. Goshen-Gottstein, Sh. Morag, and S. Kogut (eds.) (Jerusalem, 1991) 147-157.
  • Jewish Civilization in the Hellenistic-Roman Period, ____ (ed.) (Philadelphia: Trinity Press International, 1991).
  • Literary Studies in the Hebrew Bible : Form and Content : Collected Studies (1993).

Tatro, Nicholas B.

E. Tchernov

  • see Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila (1997).

Teicher, Jacob L.

  • 'The Dead Sea Scrolls - Documents of the Jewish-Christian Sect of Ebionites', JJS 2 (1951) 67-99.
  • 'The Damascus Fragments and the Origin of the Jewish Christian Sect', JJS 2 (1951) 115-143.
  • 'The Teaching of the pre-Pauline Church in the Dead Sea Scrolls', JJS 4 (1953) 1-13

Thiede, C. P.

Thiering, Barbara E.

  • Redating the Teacher of Righteousness (Sydney, 1979).
  • The Gospels and Qumran. A New Hypothesis (Sydney, 1981).
  • The Qumran Origins of the Christian Church (Sydney, 1983).

Tiller, P.

Tobin, T. H.

Toombs, L.

Tov, Emanuel

  • The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research (Jerusalem Biblical Studies) (1981).
  • 'The Orthography and Language of the Hebrew Scrolls Found at Qumran and the Origins of These Scrolls', Textus 13 (1986) 31-57.
  • DJD VIII (1990).
  • 'Sha'Arei Talmon' : Studies in the Bible, Qumran, and the Ancient Near East Presented to Shemaryahu Talmon, Michael Fishbane, et al (1991).
  • "The Unpublished Qumran Texts from Caves 4 and 11," Journal of Jewish Studies 43 (Spring 1992) 101-136.
  • Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible (Minneapolic, Minn. and Assen, Netherlands, 1992).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls on Microfiche: A Comprehensive Facsimile Edition of the Texts from the Judaean Desert, ____ (ed.), with the collaboration of Stephen J. Pfann, catalog by S. Reed (DSSM; Leiden: E. J. Brill and Israel Antiquities Authority, 1993).
  • Companion Volume to the Dead Sea Scrolls Microfiche Edition : Published Under the Auspices of the Israel Antiquities Authority, ____ (ed.) (1995).
  • DJD XIX (1996).
  • The Septuagint translation of Jeremiah and Baruch : a discussion of an early revision of the LXX of Jeremiah 29-52 and Baruch 1:1-3:8.

Trebolle Barrera, Julio

  • The Madrid Qumran Congress: Proceedings of the International Congress on the Dead Sea Scrolls, Madrid 18-21 March, 1991, ____ and Luis Vegas Montaner (eds.), 2 vols. (MQC or STJD 11; Leiden: Brill and Madrid: Editorial Complutense, 1992).

Trever, John C.

  • 'The Discovery of the Scrolls', BA 11 (1948) 46-57.
  • 'Preliminary Observations on the Jerusalem Scrolls', BASOR 111 (1948) 3-16.
  • 'Variant Readings of the Isaiah Manuscript', BASOR 111 (1948) 16-24.
  • 'A Palaeographic Study of the Jerusalem Scrolls', BASOR 113 (1949) 6-23.
  • 'Variant Readings of the Isaiah Manuscript', BASOR 113 (1949) 24-31.
  • see Burrows, M. (1950).
  • "Completion of the Publication of Some Fragments from Qumran Cave 1', RQ 5 (1964-66) 323-344.
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls. A Personal Account (Grand Rapids, 1977) (an expanded version of his The Untold Story of Qumran of 1965).

Trinquet, J.

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Ulrich, Eugene C.

  • DJD IX: (1992).
  • DJD XII (1995).
  • DJD XIV (1995).
  • Qumran Text of Samuel and Josephus
  • The Community of the Renewed Covenant : The Notre Dame Symposium on the Dead Sea Scrolls (Christianity and Judaism in Antiquity , Vol 10), ____ and James Vanderkam, eds. (Notre Dame, Indiana: The University of Notre Dame Press, 1994).

Urbach, E. E.

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VanderKam, James C.

  • The Dead Sea Scrolls Today (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1994).

Vaux, Père (Father) Roland de (1903-71)

  • 'A propos des manuscrits de la mer morte', RB, 57 (1950), 417ff.
  • 'Exploration de la région de Qumrân, RB, 60 (1953) 549ff.
  • 'Fouille au Khirbet Qumrân: Rapport préliminaire', RB, 60 (1953) 83-106 (first season).
  • 'Fouille au Khirbet Qumrân: Rapport Préliminaire sur la deuxieme campagne', RB, 61 (1954) 206-236 (second season).
  • 'Chronique archéologique:Khirbet Qumrân', RB, 61 (1954) 567-568.
  • 'Chronique archéologique:Khirbet Qumrân', RB, 63 (1956) 73-74.
  • 'Fouille de Khirbet Qumrân', RB, 63 (1956) 533-577 (third, fourth and fifth campaigns).
  • 'Les manuscrits de Qumrân et l'archéologie', RB 66 (1959) 87ff.
  • 'Fouille de Feshka: Rapport préliminaire', RB, 66 (1959) 223-255.
  • DJD II (1961).
  • L'archéologie et les manuscripts de la mer Morte (London, 1961).
  • DJD III: (1962).
  • The Bible and the Ancient Near East (1971).
  • Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls, rev. edn. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973). [English translation from the French].
  • DJD VI: (1977).
  • The Early History of Israel (1978).
  • Fouilles de Khirbet Qumrân et de Aïn Feshkha, vol. 1: Album de photographies. Répertoire du fonds photographique. Synthèse des notes de chantier du Père Roland de Vaux. Novum Testamentum et orbis antiquus. Ser. Archaeologica 1. (Friburg: Editions Universitaires, 1994).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls Today (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans and London: SPCK, 1994).
  • Ancient Israel : Its Life and Institutions (Biblical Resource Series) (pbk. ed.; 1997).

Vegas Moutaner, Luis

  • see Trebolle Barrera, Julio (1992).

Vermes, Geza and Pamela Vermes (d. Jun 10, 1993)

  • Jesus the Jew, GV (1940 and 1974).
  • Discovery in the Desert (New York, 1956).
  • "Essenes-Therapeutai-Qumran," Durham University Journal, GV, 52 (ns 21) (1959-60) 97-115.
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls in English, GV (ed.) (1962, 1965, 1968).
  • Schürer, Emile, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (175 B.C. - A.D. 135), revised and edited English version by ____, Fergus Millar and Matthew Goodman (eds.), 3 vols. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1973-1987).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls in English, 2nd ed., GV (ed.) (1975).
  • Post Biblical Jewish Studies (Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquity, V. 8), GV (1975).
  • "Ancient Judaism in the Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls," Post-Biblical Jewish Studies, ____ (ed.) (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1975) 3-7.
  • "The Impact of the Dead Sea Scrolls on Jewish Studies During the Last Twenty-Five Years," JJS 26/1-2 (1975) 1-14.
  • "The Impact of the Dead Sea Scrolls on the Study of the New Testament," JJS 27/2 (1976) 107-116.
  • Dead Sea Scrolls [IDB Supplementary Volume] (Nashville: Abingdon, 1976) 210-219.
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls: Qumran in Perspective, Rev. ed. (London; Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1977).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls: Qumran in Perspective (Philadelphia, 1981).
  • Jesus the Jew : A Historian's Reading of the Gospels, GV (1981).
  • Buber on God and the Perfect Man (Brown Judaic Studies ; No. 13), PV (1981).
  • Essays in Honour of Yigael Yadin, GV, Jacob Neusner (eds.) (1983).
  • Jesus and the World of Judaism, GV (1983).
  • Scripture and Tradition in Judaism, GV (1983).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls in English, 3rd ed., GV (ed.) (Sheffield, U.K., 1987).
  • Buber (Jewish Thinkers), PV (1988).
  • The Essenes According to the Classical Sources (Oxford Centre Textbooks, Vol 1), GV, Martin D. Goodman (eds.) (Sheffield, U.K., 1989).
  • 'The 'Pierced Messiah' Text - An interpretation evaporates', BAR (Jul./Aug. 1992) 82.
  • The Religion of Jesus the Jew, GV (1993).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls in English, rev. and ext. 4th ed. (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995) (ppb. ed.; London: Penguin, 1995).
  • Buber on God and the Perfect Man, PV (1997).
  • The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English, GV (1997).

Vesco, Father Jean-Luc

Viviano, Benedict V.

  • 'Beatitudes Found among Dead Sea Scrolls', BAR 18, no. 6 (Nov./Dec. 1992) 53-55, 66.

Vogt, E.

W

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Wacholder, Ben Zion

  • "Pseudo-Eupolemus' Two Greek Fragments on the Life of Abraham," HUCA 34 (1963) 83-113.
  • Eupolemus : A Study of Judaeo-Greek Literature (1974).
  • The Dawn of Qumran: The Secterian Torah and the Teacher of Righteousness (Cincinnati, 1983).
  • A Preliminary Edition of the Unpublished Dead Sea Scrolls: The Hebrew and Aramaic Texts from Cave Four: reconstructed and edited by ____ and M. Abegg, 2 fascs. (Washington, D.C.: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1991 and 1992).

      (The preliminary concordance used in this reconstruction was apparently purchased by the Library at Hebrew Union College in 1990. The Library catalogued it and made it available. This information was provided by David J. Gilner, Librarian, Hebrew Union College, in a letter to BAR in the May/June 1993 edition. What he does not say is how the Library was able to purchase such a volume. It was printed in a very limited edition and, therefore, generally unavailable to anyone who was not a member of the International team of Dead Sea Scrolls editors.

      In the context in which this letter appears, and given the response by Joseph A Fitzmeyer, who also agrees that he did not deposit a copy for safekeeping with the Library, are we to conclude the Fitzmeyer sold his copy to the Library at Hebrew Union College? No one seems willing to say exactly what did happen. Perhaps the preliminary copy had ceased to be useful because the final version was finally in print by 1990.)

  • Messianism and Mishnah : time and place in the early Halakhah

Wacker, M.-T.

Weaver, Walter P.

  • see Charlesworth, James H. (1992).
  • see Charlesworth, James H. (1994).
  • see Charlesworth, James H. (1994a).
  • see Charlesworth, James H. (1995).

Weinfeld, Moshe

  • The Organizational Pattern and the Penal Code of the Qumran Sect (Fribourg and Göttingen, 1986).
  • 'Traces of the Qedusha Yoser and the Pesuqé de-Zimra in the Qumran Scrolls and Ben Sira', Tarbiz 45 (1975-1976).

Wellhausen, J.

Wernberg-Moller, P.

  • The Manual of Discipline, Translated and Annotated with an Introduction (Leiden, Netherlands, 1957).

Wevers, J. W.

Whitaker, R. E.

  • See Charlesworth, James H., Princeton Theologica, vol. 1 (1994).

White, Sidnie A.

Wieder, N.

  • The Judean Scrolls and Karaism (London: East and West Library, 1962).

Wiesenberg, E.

Wilford, John Noble

Wilmot, David

Wilson, Sir Charles

Wilson, E. J.
  • see Booras, Steven W. (1997).

Wilson, Edmund

  • The Scrolls from the Dead Sea (London, 1955).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls 1947-1969, rev. edn (Glasgow, 1977).
  • Israel and the Dead Sea Scrolls (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1978).

Wise, Michael Owen

  • A Critical Study of the Temple Scroll from Cave 11 (Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, No 49) (Chicago, 1990).
  • see Eisenman, Robert H. (1992) and (1993).
  • 'The Messiah at Qumran', ____ and James D. Tabor, BAR (Nov./Dec. 1992) 60-63.
  • Methods of Investigation of the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Khirbet Qumran Site. Present Realities and Future Prospects, ____, Norman Golb, John J. Collins and Dennis Pardee, (eds.) (Volume 722 of the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences) (New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1994).
  • Thunder in Gemini and Other Essays on the History, Language and Literature of Second Temple Palestine (Sheffield, 1994).
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls, A New Translation, ____, Martin G. Abegg, Jr. and Edward M. Cook, (HarperSanFrancisco, 1996).

Wölfi, W.

  • 'Advances in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry', Nucl. Instr. Meth B29 (1987) 1-13.
  • 'Radiocarbon Dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls', G. Bonani, M. Broshi, I. Carmi, S. Ivy, J. Strugnell and ____ cAntiqot 20 (1991) 27-32.

Wolters, Al

  • 'Apocalyptic and the Copper Scroll', JNES 49 (1990) 145-154.

Wood, B. G.

  • 'To dip or to Sprinkle? The Qumran Cisterns in Perspective', BASOR 256 (1984) 45-60.

Woodward, Scott

  • see Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila (1997).

Woude, A. S. van der

  • Die messianischen Vorstellungen der Gemeinde von Qumran (Assen, Netherlands, 1957).
  • see Jonge, M. de (1966).
  • see Ploeg, J. P. M. van der (1971).
  • 'Wicked Priest or Wicked Priests? Reflections on the Identification of the Wicked Priest of the Habakkuk Commentary', JJS 33 (1982) 349-359.
  • see García Martínez, Florentino (1990).

Wright, G. E.

  • The Bible and the Ancient Near East. Essays in Honor of William Foxwell Albright (Garden City, 1965).

Wright-Baker, H.

X, Y, Z

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Yadin, Yigael, the son of Eleazer Lippe Sukenik, he took this name, meaning "will judge" when he joined the Haganah, the Jewish underground army in pre-state Palestine, and kept it after Israel's War of Independence.

  • A Genesis Apocryphon. A Scroll from the Wilderness of Judaea, N. Avigad and ____ (Jerusalem, 1956).
  • Message of the Scrolls (Christian Origins Library) (London and New York: Simon and Schuster, 1957).
  • see Rabin, Chaim (1958).
  • The Scroll of the War of the Sons of Light against the Sons of Darkness (Oxford, 1962).
  • 'The Excavation of Masada - 1963-1964: Preliminary Report'. IEJ 15 (1965) 81-82, 103-114.
  • The Ben Sira Scroll from Masada: With Introduction, Emendations and Commentary (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society and the Shrine of the Book, 1965) [Hebrew].
  • Masada, Herod's Fortress and the Zealots Last Stand (New York: Randon House, 1966).
  • 'What the Temple Scroll Reveals', Daily Telegraph Magazine, 19 July 1968, pp.15ff.
  • The Story of Masada, ____, Gerald Gottlieb (1969).
  • Tefillin from Qumran--XQ Phyl 1-4 (Jerusalem, 1969).
  • Bar-Kokhba (London and Jerusalem, 1971).
  • Hazor: With a Chapter on Israelite Megiddo (The Schweich Lectures, 1970) (1972).
  • Hazor : The Rediscovery of a Great Citadel of the Bible (1975).
  • Masada (London, 1975). li>Megillat ham-Miqdash. The Temple Scroll. [in Hebrew] 3 vols. with supp. (vol. 3: Jerusalem, 1977; vols. 1 and 2: Jerusalem, 1983).
  • Masada : Herod's Fortress and the Zealot's Last Stand. (1980). <
  • Bar-Kochba (London, 1978).
  • The Temple Scroll: The Hidden Law of the Dead Sea Sect, ____, ed., 3 vol. (Jerusalem: The Israel Exploration Society, The Institute of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the Shrine of the Book, 1983).
  • 'The Masada Fragment of the Qumran Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice', ____ and C. A. Newsom, IEJ 34 (1984) 77-88.
  • The Temple Scroll: The Hidden Law of the Dead Sea Sect, ____, ed., 3 vol. (London and New York: Random House, 1985). [English translation].
  • see Lewis, Naphtali (1989).
  • Hazor III-IV : The James A. De Rothschild Expedition at Hazor (1989).
  • Masada I : The Yigael Yadin Excavations 1963-1965 Final Reports, ____, et al (1989).
  • The Message of the Scrolls (Christian Origins Library) (1991).
  • Jerusalem Revealed : Archaeology in the Holy City 1968-1974, ____ (ed.) (1994).
  • Bar-Kokhba; the rediscovery of the legendary hero of the last Jewish revolt against Imperial Rome.
  • Hazor, the Rediscovery of a Great Citadel of the Bible.

Yardeni, Ada

  • see Eshel, Esther (1991).

Yeivin, S.

Yellin, Joseph

Youtie, H. C.

Zeigler, J.

Zeitlin, Solomon

  • 'A Commentary on the Book of Habakkuk: Important Discovery or Hoax?', JQR 39 (1949) 235-247.
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls and Modern Scholarship (JQRMS 3: Philadelphia, 1956).
  • "The Pharisees: A Historical Study,," JQR 52 (1961) 97-128.
  • "Zealots and Sicarii," JBL 81/4 (1962) 395-398.
  • "The Origin of the Pharisees Reconsidered,," JQR 52 (1969) 97-128.

Zeuner, F. E.

  • 'Notes on Qumran', PEQ 92 (1960) 27-36.

Ziobro, Bill

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Miscellaneous Reference Materials

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  • The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, F.L. Cross and E.A. Livingstone (eds.), 2nd edn. (Oxford, 1983)

  • Anchor Bible Dictionary (New York: Doubleday, 1992)

  • Atlas of the Bible J. Rugerson (New York, 1985).

  • Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls (New York: Oxford, fourthcoming).

  • Holy Bible. The New American Bible Translated from the Original Languages with Critical Use of all the Ancient Sources by Members of the Catholic Biblical Association of America.
       Editors in Chief:
      Rev. Louis F. Hartman, Rev. Msgr. Myles M. Bourke, Rev. Msgr. Patrick W. Skehan, Rev. Stephen J. Hartdegen, and Rev. Gerard S. Sloyan.
       Associate Editors and Translators:
      Rev. Edward P. Arbez, Rev. Raymond Brown, Rev. Msgr. Edward J. Byrne, Rev. Edward A. Cerny, Rev. Christian P. Ceroke, Rev. James E. Coleran, Rev. John J. Collins, Sr. M. Emmanuel Collins, Prof. Frank M. Cross, Rev. Patrick Cummins, Rev. Antonine A. De Guglielmo, Rev. Alexander A. Di Lella, Most Rev. John J. Dougherty, Rev. William A. Dowd, Rev. Joseph A. Fitzmyer, Prof. David Noel Freedman, Rev. Michael J. Gruenthaner, Rev. Thomas P. Halton, Rev. Hilary Hayden, Rev. Msgr. Maurice A. Hofer, Rev. John Knox, Rev. Justin Krellner, Rev.Richard Kugelman, Rev. Joseph L. Lilly, Rev. Roderick F. MacKenzie, Rev. Edward A. Mangan, Rev. Daniel W. Martin, Rev. William H. McClellan, Rev. James M. McGlinchery, Rev. Frederick Moriarty, Rev. Richard T. Murphy, Rev. Roland E. Murphy, Rev. Msgr. William L. Newton, Rev. Eberhard Olinger, Rev. Charles H. Pickar, Rev. Jerome D. Quinn, Rev. Christopher Rehwinkel, Rev. Msgr. John R. Rowan, Prof. J. A. Sanders, Rev. Raymond Schoeder, Rev. Edward F. Siegman, Rev. Kevin Smyth, Rev. David M. Stanley, Rev. Msgr. Matthew P. Stapleton, Rev. Msgr. John E. Steinmueller, Rev. John Ujlaki, Rev. Bruce Vawter, Rev. John B. Weisengoff,
    (New York: The World Publishing Company, 1970)

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